いらっしゃる

JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Originally a contraction of いらせらる (iraseraru), itself an honorific conjugation of 入ら (ira, the 未然形 (mizenkei, imperfective) of verb iru, “to come in, to go in; to arrive; to be in a place”) + (se, the 未然形 (mizenkei, imperfective) of honorific auxiliary verb su) + らる (raru, the older form of passivizing auxiliary verb rareru, here serving as another honorific).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "いらっしゃる"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
いらっしゃる らっしゃ [ìrássháꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) いらっしゃい らっしゃ [ìrássháꜜì]
Key constructions
Passive いらっしゃられる らっしゃられ [ìrássháráréꜜrù]
Causative いらっしゃらせる らっしゃらせ [ìrássháráséꜜrù]
Potential いらっしゃれる らっしゃれ [ìrássháréꜜrù]
Volitional いらっしゃろう らっしゃろ [ìrássháróꜜò]
Negative いらっしゃらない らっしゃらない [ìrássháráꜜnàì]
Negative perfective いらっしゃらなかった らっしゃらなかった [ìrássháráꜜnàkàttà]
Formal いらっしゃいます らっしゃいま [ìrássháímáꜜsù]
Perfective いらっしゃった らっしゃった [ìrássháꜜttà]
Conjunctive いらっしゃって らっしゃって [ìrássháꜜttè]
Hypothetical conditional いらっしゃれば らっしゃれば [ìrássháꜜrèbà]

VerbEdit

いらっしゃる (irassharuintransitive godan (stem いらっしゃり (irasshari) or いらっしゃい (irasshai), past いらっしゃった (irasshatta))

  1. (honorific) to go
    • 1994, Uchida, Yasuo, 三州吉良殺人事件 (Sanshū Kira Satsujin Jiken, “Murder in Kira, Sanshū”), Tōkyō: Kadokawa Shoten Publishing Co., Ltd, →ISBN Invalid ISBN, pages 304:
      (まご)(むすめ)()をよじらんばかりに(きょう)(しゅく)して、「あの、これからどちらへいらっしゃるのでしょうか?」と()いた。
      Magomusume wa mi o yojiran bakari ni kyōshuku shite, “ano, kore kara dochira e irassharu no deshō ka?” to kiita.
      The granddaughter asked, so shyly that she was practically writhing, "Um, where might you be going next?"
  2. (honorific) to come
    • 1977, Ushio, Michio, 美しい村 (Utsukushii Mura, “Beautiful Village”)[1], Google Play Books, page 351:
      でも(いっ)(たい)(なん)()ごろあなた(がた)はこちらへいらっしゃるのかしら?
      Demo ittai, nanji goro anatagata wa kochira e irassharu no kashira?
      But then, around what time would you be coming, I wonder?
  3. (honorific) to be
    (やま)()さんがいらっしゃいますでしょうか。
    Yamada-san ga irasshaimasu deshō ka.
    Is Ms. Yamada there? (such as when telephoning a place of business)
    (げん)()いらっしゃいますか。
    O-genki de irasshaimasu ka.
    Are you doing well?

Usage notesEdit

As listed above, this term can variously mean going, coming, or being in one place. Which meaning is intended depends on context. Compare () (oide) of similarly broad and context-dependent meaning.

ConjugationEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN