Open main menu
Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai TA.png
U+305F, た
HIRAGANA LETTER TA

[U+305E]
Hiragana
[U+3060]
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Stroke order
4 strokes

Contents

JapaneseEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

SyllableEdit

(romaji ta)

  1. The hiragana syllable (ta). Its equivalent in katakana is (ta). It is the sixteenth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō a-dan, row ta, section a).
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From たる (taru), the 連体形 (rentaikei, adnominal form) of the classical auxiliary たり (tari).

Alternative formsEdit

  • (da) (when following -b, -g, -m, and -n base verbs)

SuffixEdit

(rōmaji -ta) (jodōshi)

  1. Indicates a past or completed action.
    •  () (のう) (しゅっ) (ちょう)から (かえ)ってき
      kinō shutchō kara kaette kita
      I returned from my business trip yesterday.
    •  (げん)稿 (こう)をやっと ()
      genkō o yatto kaita yo
      I have finally finished my manuscript.
    •  (そう) () ()わったら、ごみを ()しに ()きなさい
      sōji ga owattara, gomi o dashi ni iki nasai
      Once you have finished cleaning, go dispose of the trash.
    • あの人はもう起きたろう 渡辺淳一, 『化粧』
      I wonder if he has woken up.
  2. Indicates the realization of a situation that has not realized.
    •  (はなし) () () (てん) (かんが)えよう
      hanashi ga deta jiten de kangaeyō
      Let's talk about it later when that question actually comes up.
    •  (こん) () ()ったとき (はな)すよ
      kondo atta toki hanasu yo
      I will tell you when we meet next time.
  3. (modifying a noun) Indicates the resulting state of an action.
    Synonyms: てある (-te aru), ている (-te iru)
    •  ()ガラス (まど)から (かぜ) () ()
      wareta garasu mado kara kaze ga fukikomu
      The wind keeps blowing in through the broken glass window.
  4. (at the end of a sentence)
    1. Indicates speaker's declaration, confirmation, or sudden realization.
      • あれ、 (きみ)はそこにいた
        are, kimi wa soko ni ita no
        Oh, there are you.
      •  (ぼう)やは今年 (ことし)いくつだった
        bōya wa kotoshi ikutsu datta
        How old are you, boy?
      • もうやめ
        mō yameta
        I have had enough. (lit. I have decided to give up this.)
      • よし、その (しな) ()
        yoshi, sono shina katta
        Well, I decided to buy this.
    2. Makes a light command.
      • さあ、どんどん (ある)いた (ある)いた
        sā, dondon aruita, aruita
        Go. Go. Don't stop.
ConjugationEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix follows the 音便 (onbin, euphonic changes) forms of certain verb classes, some of which cause the suffix (-ta) to be voiced as (-da).
  • In traditional Japanese grammar, this is a 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) with the defective paradigm たろ (taro), --, (ta), (ta), たら (tara), --. The 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) たろ (taro) is used to derive the past conjectural suffix たろう (-tarō), which is now old-fashioned and taken over by だろう (darō) following the past form. The 仮定形 (kateikei, hypothetical stem) たら (-tara-) used to further take the conditional particle (-ba), but now usually stands on its own to form the conditional.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Short form of たれ (tare).

PronounEdit

(rōmaji ta)

  1. (archaic) interrogative personal pronoun; who
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      あの書をきし文を讀み聞かせけれど、「なにせむにか命もおしからむ。が為にか。何事も用もなし」とて[...]