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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai TA.png
U+305F, た
HIRAGANA LETTER TA

[U+305E]
Hiragana
[U+3060]
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Stroke order
4 strokes

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

PronunciationEdit

SyllableEdit

(romaji ta)

  1. The hiragana syllable (ta). Its equivalent in katakana is (ta). It is the sixteenth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō a-dan, row ta, section a).
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From たる (taru), the 連体形 (rentaikei, adnominal form) of the classical auxiliary verb たり (tari).

Alternative formsEdit

  • (-da, when following -b, -g, -m, and -n base verbs)

SuffixEdit

(rōmaji -ta)

  1. (jodōshi) indicates a past or completed action
    • 1982, Jun'ichi Watanabe, Makeup
      あの (ひと)はもう ()たろうAno hito wa mō okitarou kaI wonder if he has woken up.
    昨日 (きのう)出張 (しゅっちょう)から (かえ)ってきKinō shutchō kara kaette kitaI returned from my business trip yesterday.
    原稿 (げんこう)をやっと ()Genkō o yatto kaita yoI have finally finished my manuscript.
    掃除 (そうじ) ()わったら、ごみを ()しに ()きなさいSōji ga owattara, gomi o dashi ni iki nasaiOnce you have finished cleaning, go dispose of the trash.
  2. (jodōshi) indicates the realization of a situation that has not realized
     (はなし) ()時点 (じてん) (かんが)えようHanashi ga deta jiten de kangaeyōLet's talk about it later when that question actually comes up.
    今度 (こんど) ()ったとき (はな)すよKondo atta toki hanasu yoI will tell you when we meet next time.
  3. (modifying a noun) indicates the resulting state of an action
     ()ガラス (まど)から (かぜ) () ()Wareta garasu mado kara kaze ga fukikomuThe wind keeps blowing in through the broken glass window.
  4. (jodōshi) at the end of a sentence:
    1. indicates speaker's declaration, confirmation, or sudden realization
      あれ、 (きみ)はそこにいたAre, kimi wa soko ni ita noOh, there are you.
       (ぼう)やは今年 (ことし)いくつだったBōya wa kotoshi ikutsu dattaHow old are you, boy?
      もう やめMō yametaI have had enough. (lit. I have decided to give up this.)
      よし、その (しな) ()Yoshi, sono shina kattaWell, I decided to buy this.
    2. makes a light command
      さあ、どんどん (ある)いた (ある)いたSā, dondon aruita, aruitaGo. Go. Don't stop.
    Synonyms: てある (-te aru), ている (-te iru)
ConjugationEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix follows the 音便 (onbin, euphonic changes) forms of certain part of speech classes, some of which cause the suffix (-ta) to be voiced as (-da):
    • Verbs
      • godan ending in -k: (kaku)書いた (kaita), (iku)った (itta)
      • godan ending in -g: (oyogu)いだ (oyoida)
      • godan ending in -s: (hanasu)した (hanashita)
      • godan ending in -t: (matsu)った (matta)
      • godan ending in -n: (shinu)んだ (shinda)
      • godan ending in -b: (asobu)んだ (asonda)
      • godan ending in -m: (yasumu)んだ (yasunda)
      • godan ending in -r: (kaeru)った (kaetta)
      • godan ending in -w: (iu)った (itta), (kou)うた (kouta), (tou)問う (touta)
      • ichidan: (miru) (mita), (deru) (deta)
      • k-irregular: (kuru) (kita)
      • s-irregular: する (suru)した (shita), ずる (ronzuru)じた (ronjita)
    • i-adjectives: (takai)かった (takakatta), (ii, yoi)かった (yokatta)
    • na-adjectives: 静か (shizukana)静かだった (shizukadatta)
    • Auxiliaries:
      • copula: (da)だった (datta)
      • polite copula: です (desu)でした (desita)
      • polite verb suffix: ます (-masu)ました (-mashita)
  • In traditional Japanese grammar, this is a 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) with the defective paradigm たろ (taro), —, (ta), (ta), たら (tara), —. The 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) たろ (taro) is used to derive the past conjectural suffix たろう (-tarou), which is now old-fashioned and taken over by だろう (darou) following the past form. The 仮定形 (kateikei, hypothetical stem) たら (-tara-) used to further take the conditional particle (-ba), but now usually stands on its own to form the conditional.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 3Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at .
た【誰】
[pronoun](obsolete, persists in some fossilized expressions) interrogative personal pronoun: who
(This term, , is a hiragana spelling of .)

Etymology 4Edit

/to wa//ta/

PhraseEdit

(rōmaji ta)

  1. Contraction of とは (to wa): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 5Edit

/(-t̚) wa//(-t͡ɕɨ) wa//(-t͡sʉ) wa//(-t̚)ta/

Appears in noh and kyogen texts.

Contraction of any Sino-Japanese-derived term ending in a -t̚ 入声 (nisshō, entering tone) (-chi) or (-tsu) + particle (wa).

ParticleEdit

(rōmaji ta)

  1. (rare) Synonym of (wa):

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit


Old JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Alternative spelling
  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PronounEdit

(ta)

  1. interrogative personal pronoun: who
    • 711712, Kojiki (poem 94)
      美母呂爾都久夜多麻加岐都岐阿麻斯爾加母余良牟加微能美夜比登
      mi1-mo2ro2 ni tuku ya tamakaki1 tuki1amasi ta ni ka mo2 yo2ramu kami2 no2 mi1yapi1to2
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Japanese: (ta)

Etymology 2Edit

Alternative spelling
  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

NounEdit

(ta)

  1. a sake, reason
    • 749, Shoku Nihongi (Tenpyō-shōhō 1, first day of the fourth lunar month)
      所念種種法中爾波大御言國家護勝在聞召。
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 808), text here
      多都乃麻乎安礼波毛等米牟阿遠爾与志奈良乃美夜古邇許牟比等乃
      tatu no2 ma wo are pa motome2mu awoni yosi Nara no2 mi1yako1 ni ko2mu pi1to2 no2 ta ni
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Derived termsEdit
Usage notesEdit
  • Takes either the particle (ni) or (no2).

Etymology 3Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PrefixEdit

(ta-)

  1. prefixed to a verb, adjective, or adverb to indicate an adjusting tone
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (poem 40)
      阿波旎辭摩異椰敷多那羅弭阿豆枳辭摩異椰敷多那羅弭豫呂辭枳辭摩之魔儾伽佐例阿羅智之吉備那流伊慕塢阿比瀰菟流慕能
      Apadi-sima iya putanarabi Aduki1-sima iya putanarabi yo2ro2siki1 simasima ta ka ta-sarearatisi Ki1bi2 naru imo wo api1mi1turu mono2
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)