JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
來る (kyūjitai)

From Old Japanese (ku). Compare the development of modern する (suru) from Old Japanese .

First attested in the Kojiki of 712.[1]

Cognate with Kunigami 来ん (sun), Miyako (ksï), Okinawan 来ーん (chuun), Yaeyama 来ん (kïn), Yonaguni 来ん (kun).

PronunciationEdit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "来る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
来る [kúꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) 来い [kóꜜì]
Key constructions
Passive 来られる られ [kòráréꜜrù]
Causative 来させる させ [kòsáséꜜrù]
Potential 来られる られ [kòráréꜜrù]
Volitional 来よう [kòyóꜜò]
Negative 来ない ない [kóꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 来なかった なかった [kóꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 来ます [kìmáꜜsù]
Perfective 来た [kíꜜtà]
Conjunctive 来て [kíꜜtè]
Hypothetical conditional 来れば れば [kúꜜrèbà]

VerbEdit

() (kuruintransitive kuru (stem () (ki), past () (kita))

  1. [from 712] to come (toward the speaker/writer)
    (きゃく)さんあまり()ない(みせ)
    o-kyaku-san ga amari konai o-mise
    a shop that does not see many visitors
  2. [from 1908] (specifically, of a sensation) to come and stimulate
    (こころ)()(かな)
    kokoro ni kuru kanashisa
    sadness that strikes the heart
    (のど)()(から)
    nodo ni kuru karasa
    spiciness that assaults the throat
ConjugationEdit
AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
きた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
來る (kyūjitai)
Japanese verb pair
active (きた)
mediopassive (きた)

From () (ki, continuative form of etymology 1) + (いた) (itaru).

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

(きた) (kitaruintransitive godan (stem (きた) (kitari), past (きた)った (kitatta))

  1. to come, to arrive
    • 2011, NHK, 天皇誕生日 皇居で一般参賀:
      (きた)(とし)(みな)さん一人(ひとり)びとりにとり、よい(とし)であるよう(いの)っています。
      Kitaru toshi ga mina-san hitoribitori ni tori, yoi toshi de aru yō inotte imasu.
      I pray that next year [the coming year] will be a good year for each of you.
ConjugationEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō