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JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
kun’yomi

/wiru//iru/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Nihon Shoki, completed around 720 CE.[1]

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

居る (intransitive, ichidan conjugation, hiragana いる, rōmaji iru, historical hiragana ゐる)

  1. (of animate objects) to exist, to be
     (すず) ()です () (なか)さんいますか?
    Suzuki desu ga, Tanaka-san imasu ka?
    This is Suzuki calling; may I speak to Tanaka?
    (literally, “[This] is Suzuki; is Tanaka present?”)
    あなたいない (なに)できない
    anata ga inai to nani mo dekinai
    I can't do anything if you aren't here/there
     (きみ)いた (なつ)
    kimi ga ita natsu
    the summer you were there [with me; by my side]
     (きみ)いた (なつ)
    kimi to ita natsu
    the summer [I] was with you
  2. (of animate objects) to have
     (かれ) ()いますか?
    Kareshi imasu ka?
    Do you have a boyfriend?
  3. (after a verb in the て conjunctive form) to be (doing); indicates a progressive or continuous sense; See ている
     (あさ) (はん) ()いますか?
    Asagohan o tabete imasu ka?
    Are you eating breakfast?
  4. (Classical Japanese) to sit
    • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      それを ()れば、 (さん) (すん)ばかりなる (ひと)いと (うつく)しうて ()たり。
      Sore wo mireba, sansun bakari naru fito ito utukusiute witari (Classical pronunciation)
      Sore o mireba, sansun bakari naru hito ito utsukushūte itari. (modern pronunciation)
      When he looked at it, there sat a very lovely human being about three sun long.
Usage notesEdit
ConjugationEdit
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
kun’yomi

/woru//oru/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[3]

Listed in some sources[1][2] as derived from the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) wi of verb wiru (see above) + ある (aru). The conjugation paradigm for woru is indeed the same as aru for Classical and Old Japanese. However, the compounded wiaru form would ordinarily become yaru or eru via historical phonetic change, and the vowel shift to /o/ is unexplainable in this hypothesis.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

居る (intransitive, godan conjugation, hiragana おる, rōmaji oru, historical hiragana をる)

  1. (of animate objects) to exist, to be, to have
    • むかしあるところに一人 (ひとり) (よく)ばりの (ぼう)さんがおりました。[1]
      Mukashi aru tokoro ni hitori no yokubari no bōsan ga orimashita.
      Once upon a time, there was a grasping priest somewhere.
  2. (after a verb in the て conjunctive form) to be (doing): indicates a progressive or continuous sense; the verb ending -ておる (-te oru) is often contracted to とる (-toru)
    • ぼくは ()をほそめて (うみ) ()おった[2]
      Boku wa me o hosomete umi o miteotta
      I was staring at the sea with a squinted eye
  3. (Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu, after a verb in the conjunctive form) to be (doing); a continuous sense; often transformed to よる (yoru)
    • 毎朝 (まいあさ) (わたし)観音様 (かんのんさま)にお (がん) ()よるんじゃものきっと (とお)るわ。[3]
      Maiasa, watashi, Kannon-sama ni o-gan o kakeyoru n ja mono kitto tōru wa.
      Since I am making a wish to Kannon every morning, he will certainly pass his exams.
Usage notesEdit
  • A variation of いる (iru) used mainly in western Japan.
  • In standard Japanese, it is usually used in humble language (謙譲語) or polite language (丁寧語) as おります form or in certain archaic/literary expressions.
ConjugationEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 886), text here