KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Korean numbers (edit)
50
 ←  4 5 6  → 
    Native isol.: 다섯 (daseot)
    Native attr.: 다섯 (daseot), (dat) (archaic)
    Sino-Korean: (o)
    Hanja:
    Ordinal: 다섯째 (daseotjjae)

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 다ᄉᆞᆺ〮 (Yale: tàsós).

Beyond Middle Korean, the reconstruction of the ancestral Koreanic root for "five" is difficult. See a list of relevant attestations and forms in Appendix:Historical Koreanic numerals#Five.

PronunciationEdit

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?daseot
Revised Romanization (translit.)?daseos
McCune–Reischauer?tasŏt
Yale Romanization?tases

NumeralEdit

다섯 (daseot)

  1. (native numeral) five
    Synonym: () (o, five, Sino-Korean numeral)

Usage notesEdit

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세 (hana-man deo juse-yo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ir-eun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.