U+C624, 오
HANGUL SYLLABLE O
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:d-h

[U+C623]
Hangul Syllables
[U+C625]

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit





예 ←→ 와

SyllableEdit

(o)

  1. A Hangul syllabic block made up of and .

Etymology 2Edit

Sino-Korean word from (five), from the Middle Korean reading 오〯 (Yale: ), from Middle Chinese (MC ŋuoX).

PronunciationEdit

Revised Romanization? o
Revised Romanization (translit.)? o
McCune–Reischauer? o
Yale Romanization? ō

NumeralEdit

(o) (hanja )

  1. (Sino-Korean numeral) five
    Synonym: 다섯 (daseot, native numeral)
Usage notesEdit

In modern Korean, numbers are usually written in Arabic numerals.

The Korean language has two sets of numerals: a native set of numerals inherited from Old Korean, and a Sino-Korean set which was borrowed from Middle Chinese in the first millennium C.E.

Native classifiers take native numerals.

Some Sino-Korean classifiers take native numerals, others take Sino-Korean numerals, while yet others take both.

Recently loaned classifiers generally take Sino-Korean numerals.

For many terms, a native numeral has a quantifying sense, whereas a Sino-Korean numeral has a sense of labeling.

  • 반(班) (se ban, three school classes, native numeral)
  • 반(班) (sam ban, Class Number Three, Sino-Korean numeral)

When used in isolation, native numerals refer to objects of that number and are used in counting and quantifying, whereas Sino-Korean numerals refer to the numbers in a more mathematical sense.

  • 하나 주세요 (hanaman deo juseyo, Could you give me just one more, please, native numeral)
  • 더하기 ? (Il deohagi ireun?, What's one plus one?, Sino-Korean numeral)

While older stages of Korean had native numerals up to the thousands, native numerals currently exist only up to ninety-nine, and Sino-Korean is used for all higher numbers. There is also a tendency—particularly among younger speakers—to uniformly use Sino-Korean numerals for the higher tens as well, so that native numerals such as 일흔 (ilheun, “seventy”) or 아흔 (aheun, “ninety”) are becoming less common.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

Revised Romanization? o
Revised Romanization (translit.)? o
McCune–Reischauer? o
Yale Romanization? ō

InterjectionEdit

(o)

  1. oh

Etymology 4Edit

Sino-Korean word from .

PronunciationEdit

Revised Romanization? o
Revised Romanization (translit.)? o
McCune–Reischauer? o
Yale Romanization? o

Proper nounEdit

(O) (hanja )

  1. A common surname​.

Middle KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Korean (*-wo, modulator suffix).

Alternative formsEdit

  • 우〮 (-wú) (after yin vowel)
  • 요〮 (-ywó), 유〮 (ywú) (after vowel stem with final -i)
  • 로〮 (-lwó) (after copula (i-))
  • Changes the pitch to rising, but the suffix itself is lost (after CV verb stems not ending in a minimal vowel)
  • The suffix is conserved but causes loss of the minimal vowel of the verb stem (after CV verb stems ending in a minimal vowel)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

오〮 (-wó)

  1. A very common verbal suffix in fifteenth-century Middle Korean, sometimes called the "modulator" in English. The meaning of this term is uncertain. Possibilities include:
    • 14th century?, “動動 (Dongdong)”, in 樂學軌範 (Akhak Gwebeom)[1]:
      ()이여 ()이라 ᄂᆞᆯ 나ᅀᆞ라 오ᅌᅵ다
      TEK-iye PWOK-ila hwon-ol nazola woswongita
      I have come [-wo] to present [this] which they call [-wo] virtue and fortune.
    • 14th century?, “西京別曲 (Seogyeong byeolgok)”, in 樂章歌詞 (Akjang gasa):
      괴시란ᄃᆡ 우러곰 좃니ᅌᅵ다
      kwoysilantoy wulekwom cwosninwongita
      If you only loved me, I would chase after [-wo] you as I wept
    • 1449, Sejong the Great, 月印千江之曲 (Worin cheon'gang ji gok):
      보ᄇᆡ ᄭᅮ 술위예 (샤ᇰ)이 메더니
      pwopoy skwumywun sulGwuy-yey SYANG-i meyteni
      The elephant was bearing a cart which they had decorated [-wu] with treasures
    1. Heo Ung (1958) believed that this was not a single suffix, but three different suffixes: 1) in the main clause, a suffix marking a first-person subject; 2) in an adnominal verb, a suffix marking the noun as a direct or indirect object of the verb; 3) in nominalized or gerund verbal constructions, simply an integral part of the nominalizing or gerund suffix. The basic framework of Heo's theory remains the most influential today. Examples difficult to explain in Heo's basic theory include:
      • 13th century, “翰林別曲 (Hallim byeolgok)”, in 樂章歌詞 (Akjang gasa):
        (야ᇰ)()() ()()() 빗기 드러 위 딕 (겨ᇰ) 긔 엇더ᄒᆞ니ᅌᅵᆺ고
        YANG.SYU.PHIL SYE.SYU.PHIL piski tule wuy tiknwon KYENG ku-y este-honingiskwo
        Raising slantedly the sheep-hair brush and rat-hair brush, yea, how [splendid] is the scene when they dip [-wo] them [in ink]!
        The adnominal construction with the verb "to dip" is describing the noun "scene", which is not the object of the verb, but the modulator appears.
      • 14th century?, “動動 (Dongdong)”, in 樂學軌範 (Akhak gwebeom)[2]:
        (ᅀᅵ)()ㅅ 보로매 아으 노피 현 (드ᇰ)ㅅ블 다()(ᅀᅵᆫ) 비취실 즈ᅀᅵ샷다
        ZI.WEL-s pwolwom-ay au nwophi hyen TUNG-s pul tahwola MAN.ZIN pichwuysil cuz-isyasta
        By the full moon of the second month, oh, [you] are like [-wo] a lamplight lit on high! Your appearance is one to illuminate a myriad men.
        The subject of the verb "to be like" is the beloved in the second or third person, but the modulator appears.
    2. Yi Sung-nyeong (1959) believed that this was a single aspectual suffix, called the "volitive", that conveyed the desire of the verb's subject to carry out the action. This remains a minority theory, Examples difficult to explain in Yi's theory include:
      • 1459, 月印釋譜 (Worin seokbo), pages 10:24a, 21:55a:
        내... 아ᄃᆞ〮ᄅᆞᆯ〮 나호〮니〮 [] () ᄒᆞᆫ 아ᄃᆞ〮ᄅᆞᆯ〮 나ᄒᆞ니〮
        na-y... àtól-ól nàh [] PI hòn àtól-ól nàhòní
        I... gave birth [-wo] to a son [] The slave-girl gave birth to one son.
        This contrast is difficult to explain under the volitive hypothesis.
      • 1461, 楞嚴經諺解 (Neung'eomgyeong eonhae), page 5:43a:
        내... 두〯 누〮늘〮 일후〮니〮
        na-y... twǔ nwún-úl ìlh
        I... have lost [-wu] my two eyes.
        Contextually, this cannot have been desired by the subject of the verb.
    3. Examples clearly incompatible with Heo's theory led Heo himself to propose that the suffix could be used for non-first-person subjects to convey a sense of rapport in which the speaker speaks from the perspective of the verb's subject. A refined version of Heo's hypothesis, moving away from an Indo-European notion of person-marking, analyzes the suffix as conveying empathy or a close emotional tie between the speaker and the subject of the verb (in both main and adnominal clauses) in addition to its object-marking function in adnominal constructions. It is currently the most popular interpretation of the modulator, though it is still not unanimously agreed upon. Both examples given above of the exceptions to Heo's hypothesis can be explained by this theory:
      • 13th century, “翰林別曲 (Hallim byeolgok)”, in 樂章歌詞 (Akjang gasa):
        (야ᇰ)()() ()()() 빗기 드러 위 딕 (겨ᇰ) 긔 엇더ᄒᆞ니ᅌᅵᆺ고
        YANG.SYU.PHIL SYE.SYU.PHIL piski tule wuy tiknwon KYENG ku-y este-honingiskwo
        Raising slantedly the sheep-hair brush and rat-hair brush, yea, how splendid is the scene when they dip [-wo] them [in ink]!
        The modulator is used to express the speaker's empathy and self-identification with the scholars who are dipping their brushes.
      • 14th century?, “動動 (Dongdong)”, in 樂學軌範 (Akhak gwebeom)[3]:
        (ᅀᅵ)()ㅅ 보로매 아으 노피 현 (드ᇰ)ㅅ블 다()(ᅀᅵᆫ) 비취실 즈ᅀᅵ샷다
        ZI.WEL-s pwolwom-ay au nwophi hyen TUNG-s pul tahwola MAN.ZIN pichwuysil cuz-isyasta
        By the full moon of the second month, oh, [you] are like [-wo] a lamplight lit on high! Your appearance is one to illuminate a myriad men.
        The modulator is used to express the speaker's emotional rapport with the beloved.
Derived termsEdit
Usage notesEdit

By the late sixteenth century, the suffix had become obsolete and does not survive in the modern dialects.

See alsoEdit
Middle Korean verbal paradigm
Verb stem Slot 1
Object honorific
Slot 2
Retrospective/
Confirmative
Slot 3
Subject honorific
Slot 4
Present tense
Slot 5
Modulator
Slot 6
Prospective
ᅀᆞᇦ (-zoW) (-te, retrospective)
아/어 (-a/-e, confirmative)
(-ke, confirmative)
(-si)1 ᄂᆞ (-no) 오/우 (-wo/-wu) (-li)1
Slot 7
Exclamatory2
(Slot 8)
(Retrospective)3
(Slot 9)
(Modulator)4
Slot 10
Definitive
Slot 11
Addressee honorific
Slot 12
Sentence ender
(-two)
(-twos)
(-s)
애/에 (-ay/-ey)
others
(-te) 오/우 (-wo/-wu) (-ni)1 ᅌᅵ (-ngi, very deferential)1
(-ng, deferential)
See Template:okm-sentence enders
Examples
기르ᅀᆞᄫᆞ시니ᅌᅵ다 (kilu-zoW-o-si-ni-ngi-ta, [the honored one] [indeed] brought up [the honored thing], [o honored one]., 月印釋譜 10:19)
주그리로소ᅌᅵ다 (cwuk-u-li-lwo[two]-s-wo-ngi-ta, [I] shall die, [o honored one]!, 月印釋譜 21:22)
살어리랏다 (sal-Ge[ke]-li-las-ta, [I feel that] one would have lived!, 靑山別曲)
ᄒᆞ더시라 (ho-te-si-la, [the honored one] was doing)
ᄒᆞ시리라 (ho-si-li-la, [the honored one] shall do)
ᄒᆞ시리러라 (ho-si-li-le[te]-la, [the honored one] was about to do; [the honored one] would have done)
Notes
1 Preceded by a minimal vowel interfix, (-o-) or (-u-), after a consonant-final suffix
2 These suffixes are complex. Several of them fuse non-exclamatory suffixes, causing problems in the paradigm if they are broken down into their bare components. For instance, the easily segmentable (sy-as, subject honorific + exclamatory) behaves as a single unit with regards to suffixing order: ᄒᆞ리샷다 (ho-li-syas-ta, [the honored one] shall do!) rather than the expected *ᄒᆞ시릿다 (*ho-si-li-s-ta). Similarly, while the retrospective and confirmative suffixes share a slot and are hence mutually exclusive, the exclamatory version of the former has been attested as co-occurring with the latter. In the context of this table, it is therefore more appropriate to consider such fused suffixes as single exclamatory morphemes that also carry other information.
3 Takes this position if Slot 6 (prospective) is filled, or after the exclamatory suffix (-twos).
4 Unusual position, primarily taken when Slot 7 (exclamatory) is filled.
The list is not exhaustive. Many suffixes are mutually exclusive.

ReferencesEdit

  • 임재욱 (Im Jae-uk) (2010) , “고전시가 작품에 사용된 선어말어미 '-오/우-'의 기능 [The function of the pre-final suffix -wo/wu- in classical poetry]”, in Gugeosa yeon'gu, volume 19, DOI:10.14727/khl.2014.19.7
  • 석주연 (Seok Ju-yeon) (2014) , “선어말어미 ‘-오-’의 연구 성과와 쟁점 [Findings and key points in the study of the pre-final suffix -wo-]”, in Han'guk siga yeon'gu, volume 29

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Korean (*-wo, adverb-deriving suffix).

Alternative formsEdit

  • (wu) (after yin vowel)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(-wo)

  1. An adverb-deriving suffix attached to verb and adjective stems.
    ᄌᆞᆽ > ᄌᆞ조〮
    còc- > còc
    to be frequent > frequently
    돌〯 >
    twǒl- > twòl
    to turn > again
    Synonyms: (-i), (-key)

ReferencesEdit

  • Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 181—183

Etymology 3Edit

Lenition of Proto-Korean *-kwo in voiced environments. See Appendix:Koreanic reconstructions for more.

Alternative formsEdit

  • (-Gwu) (after yin vowel)
  • (-hwo), (-hwu), (-kwo) (less common)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(-Gwo)

  1. A causative-deriving suffix attached to verb and adjective stems.
    일〯다〮 > 우〮다〮
    ǐl-tá > ìl-Gwú-tá
    to occur > to create, to accomplish [to cause to occur]
    Synonym: (-i)

ReferencesEdit

  • Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 146, 178—179

Etymology 4Edit

Lenition in voiced environments. See Appendix:Koreanic reconstructions for more.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

오〮 (-Gwó)

  1. Lenited allomorphic form of (-kwo, verbal connective suffix) (in certain voiced environments)
Usage notesEdit

This allomorph only occurs after coda liquid /-l/, a falling diphthong, the copula (i-), or the passivizing auxiliary (ti-). The velar stop is preserved before all other vowels.

ReferencesEdit

  • Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 145

Etymology 5Edit

Lenition in voiced environments. See Appendix:Koreanic reconstructions for more.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

오〮 (-(G)wó)

  1. Lenited allomorphic form of (-kwo, non-polar interrogative marker) (in certain voiced environments)
See alsoEdit
Middle Korean sentence enders
Form Mood Notes Applied to (sye-, to stand)
다〮 (-tá)
라〮 (-lá)
Declarative Unmarked 셔다〮 (Yale: syètá)
마〮 (-má) Promissive 셔우〮마〮 (Yale: syèwúmá)
(-n) 다〮 (-tá) Interrogative Realis Obligatory for second-person (2P) subject 션다〮 (Yale: syèntá)
가〮 (-ka) Polar question, non-2P subject 션가〮 (Yale: syènká)
고〮 (-kwo) Wh-word question, non-2P subject 션고〮 (Yale: syènkwó)
(-lQ) 다〮 (-tá) Irrealis Obligatory for 2P subject 셜따〮 (Yale: syèlttá)
가〮 (-ká) Polar question, non-2P subject 셜까〮 (Yale: syèlkká)
고〮 (-kwó) Wh-word question, non-2P subject 셜꼬〮 (Yale: syèlkkwó)
니〮 (-ní) 아〮 (-Gá) Realis Non-honorific Polar question 셔니〮아〮 (Yale: syèníGá), 셔녀〮 (Yale: syènyé)
오〮 (-Gwó) Non-polar question 셔니〮오〮 (Yale: syèníGwó), 셔뇨〮 (Yale: syènyó)
(-s) 가〮 (-ká) Deferential No polarity distinction 셔닛〮가〮 (Yale: syèníská)
ᅌᅵᆺ (-ngì-s) Highly deferential 셔니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (Yale: syèníngìská)
리〮 (-lí) 아〮 (-Gá) Irrealis Non-honorific Polar question 셔리〮아〮 (Yale: syèlíGá), 셔려〮 (Yale: syèlyé)
오〮 (-Gwó) Non-polar question 셔리〮오〮 (Yale: syèlíGwó), 셔료〮 (Yale: syèlyó)
(-s) 가〮 (-ká) Deferential No polarity distinction 셔릿〮가〮 (Yale: syèlíská)
ᅌᅵᆺ (-ngì-s) Highly deferentiall 셔리〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (Yale: syèlíngìská)
라〮 (-lá) Imperative Ordering Non-honorific 셔라〮 (Yale: syèlá)
아〮쎠〮 (-ássyé)
어〮쎠〮 (-éssyé)
Deferential 셔〮쎠〮 (Yale: syéssyé)
쇼〮셔〮 (-syósyé) Highly deferential 셔쇼〮셔〮 (Yale: syèsyósyé)
고〮 (-kwó)
오〮 (-Gwó)
라〮 (-lá) Requesting Non-honorific 셔고〮라〮 (Yale: syèkwólá)
려〮 (-lyé) Deferential 셔고〮려〮 (Yale: syèkwólyé)
ᅌᅵ (-ngì) 다〮 (-tá) Highly deferential 셔고〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (Yale: syèkwóngìtá)
져〮 (-cyé) Propositive Plain 셔져〮 (Yale: syècyé)
사〮 (-sá) ᅌᅵ (-ngì) 다〮 (-tá) Deferential 셔사〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (Yale: syèsángìtá)
(-n) 뎌〮 (-tyé) Exclamatory Self-honoring 션뎌〮 (Yale: syèntyé)
(-lQ) 셔〮 (-syé) 셜쎠〮 (Yale: syèlssyé)
고〮나〮 (kwóná) Only sixteenth century 셔고〮나〮 (Yale: syèkwóná)
Based on 나찬연 2020, 중세 국어의 이해; Lee and Ramsey 2011, History of the Korean Language. Morphological segmentation of the verbal paradigm sometimes differs between analyses. The list is not exhaustive.
Usage notesEdit

This allomorph is obligatory after /-j/, /-i/, or /-l/ (note that the irrealis suffix /-lQ/ is excluded here). It sometimes appears before other vowels as well. It was sometimes pronounced as /-ɣo/ and sometimes as /-o/, as can be perceived from orthographic variation between e.g. ᄒᆞ (ho-li-Gwo) and ᄒᆞ (ho-ly-wo).

ReferencesEdit

  • Lee, Ki-Moon; Ramsey, S. Robert (2011) A History of the Korean Language, Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 145