Korean edit

Etymology edit

Contraction of 아니하다 (anihada).

Pronunciation edit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [a̠ntʰa̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: []
Revised Romanization?anta
Revised Romanization (translit.)?anhda
Yale Romanization?anhta

Adjective edit

않다 (anta) (infinitive 않아, sequential 않으니)

  1. (adjective 않다 (-ji anta)) auxiliary adjective used to negate the clause to which the main adjective belongs
    어렵지 않은 수업
    eoryeop-ji aneun sueop
    a lesson which is not difficult

Conjugation edit

Verb edit

않다 (anta) (infinitive 않아, sequential 않으니)

  1. (verb- 않다) auxiliary verb used to negate the clause to which the main verb belongs
    듣지 않는 수업
    deutji anneun sueop
    a lesson which [I] do not listen to
  2. (transitive) to not do something
    공부를 않는다.
    gongbu-reul anneunda.
    [I] don't study.

Conjugation edit

Usage notes edit

않다 (anta) inherits the nature of the main term that it negates. Therefore it behaves as an adjective when it negates an adjective, and behaves as a verb when it negates a verb.

The adverb (an, “not”) is used to negate a verb, and has a more informal connotation. Compare:

Certain terms or expressions have a strong (sometimes obligatory) preference for one negation type or another. For example, adjectives derived from -스럽다 (-seureopda) are usually negated by 않다 (anta), as do inherently negative verbs such as 없다 (eopda, “to not have”) and 모르다 (moreuda, “to not know”). By contrast, negated rhetorical questions obligatorily require (an).

(an, “not”) negates only the verb or adjective, whereas 않다 (anta) negates the entire embedded clause. While this difference is often not semantically meaningful, it can also lead to contrasting meanings, such as when the particle (man, “only”) is involved:

  • 사과 먹어.
    sagwa-man an meogeo.
    Apples are the only thing they don't eat.
  • 사과 먹지 않아.
    sagwa-man meokji ana.
    They don't only eat apples [but they eat other things too].

In the first case, only the verb 먹다 (meokda, “to eat”) is negated. In the latter, the entire clause 사과-만 먹다 (sagwa-man meokda, “to eat only apples”) is negated.

For a history of this construction, see 不冬.

Related terms edit