KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Contraction of 하다 (an hada) or 아니하다 (anihada).

PronunciationEdit

Revised Romanization? anta
Revised Romanization (translit.)? anhda
McCune–Reischauer? ant'a
Yale Romanization? anhta
Audio
(file)

AdjectiveEdit

않다 (anta) (infinitive 않아, sequential 않으니)

  1. (adjective- 않다) auxiliary adjective used to negate the clause to which the main adjective belongs
    어렵지 않은 수업
    eoryeopji aneun sueop
    a lesson which is not difficult

ConjugationEdit

VerbEdit

않다 (anta) (infinitive 않아, sequential 않으니)

  1. (verb- 않다) auxiliary verb used to negate the clause to which the main verb belongs
    듣지 않는 수업
    deutji anneun sueop
    a lesson which [I] do not listen to
  2. (transitive) to not do something
    공부를 않는다.
    Gongbureul anneunda.
    [I] don't study.
    (file)

ConjugationEdit

Usage notesEdit

않다 (anta) inherits the nature of the main term that it negates. Therefore it behaves as an adjective when it negates an adjective, and behaves as a verb when it negates a verb.

The adverb (an, “not”) is used to negate a verb, and has a more informal connotation. Compare:

Certain terms or expressions have a strong (sometimes obligatory) preference for one negation type or another. For example, adjectives derived from 스럽다 (seureopda) are usually negated by 않다 (anta), as do inherently negative verbs such as 없다 (eopda, “to not have”) and 모르다 (moreuda, “to not know”). By contrast, negated rhetorical questions obligatorily require (an).

(an, “not”) negates only the verb or adjective, whereas 않다 (anta) negates the entire embedded clause. While this difference is often not semantically meaningful, it can also lead to contrasting meanings, such as when the particle (man, “only”) is involved:

  • 사과 먹어.
    Sagwaman an meogeo.
    Apples are the only thing they don't eat.
  • 사과 먹지 않아.
    Sagwaman meokji ana.
    They don't only eat apples [but they eat other things too].

In the first case, only the verb 먹다 (meokda, “to eat”) is negated. In the latter, the entire clause 사과 먹다 (sagwaman meokda, “to eat only apples”) is negated.

For a history of this construction, see 不冬.

Related termsEdit