Palatalized from earlier 디 (Yale: -ti), short for Middle Korean 디〮ᄫᅵ〮 (Yale: -tíWí, contrastive suffix). Compare Northeastern Korean 지비 (-jibi), which has the most conservative form of this morpheme; Southeastern Korean 재 (-jae) may also be a non-shortened form of 디〮ᄫᅵ〮 (Yale: -tíWí), via Early Modern Korean 지웨 (-ciwey).
Sentence-final use appears in the eighteenth century, arising from an omission of the second fact in colloquial speech.
지 • (-ji)
- Used to contrast two facts regarding the same topic, thereby emphasizing both facts. In conversation, it is usually used to deny or qualify something the other person has said. The second fact tends to be negated or a rhetorical question.
- Used to strongly emphasize a fact by connecting two differently worded statements amounting to the same meaning. The second statement tends to be negated or a rhetorical question.
- In the intimate style, a general-purpose sentence-final suffix with a more affirmative sense than 어 (-eo):
- The first fact is often given further emphatic force through the construction 으면... 지 (-eumyeon... -ji), as in one of the examples above.
From Middle Korean 디〮 (Yale: -tí), plausibly from ᄃᆞ (Yale: to, “fact”) + 이〮 (Yale: -í, nominative case marker); compare ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: -tól), of similar use in long negation and incorporating the accusative marker. Apparently a Middle Korean innovation; 隱 (*-n) and 尸 (*-lq) were used in Old Korean long negation.
지 • (-ji)
- Used for the negated verb or adjective in "long negation".
In long negation, a clause is negated with the verbs 않다 (anta, “to not...”), 아니하다 (anihada, “(formal) to not...”) 못하다 (mothada, “to be unable to...”), or 말다 (malda, “to not do”). The verb or adjective of the negated clause takes the suffix 지 (-ji), which transforms the verb or adjective into the direct subject or object of the negating verb. Therefore, the verb negated via long negation can take 가 (-ga, subject marker) or 를 (-reul, direct object marker). Such case markers add a more emphatic nuance to the negation.
Certain terms or expressions have a strong, sometimes obligatory, preference for one negation type or another. For example, adjectives derived from 스럽다 (-seureopda) are almost always negated by long negation, as are inherently negative verbs such as 없다 (eopda, “to not have”) and 모르다 (moreuda, “to not know”).
The adverbs negate only the verb or adjective, whereas long negation negates the entire embedded clause. While this difference is often not semantically meaningful, it can also lead to contrasting meanings, such as when the particle 만 (-man, “only”) is involved:
For negative imperatives, long negation with 말다 (malda) is the only possibility, as no corresponding adverb exists.
지 • (-ji)
- ^ 김종록 (1997), “중세국어 접속어미 '디ᄫᅵ'의 통시적 변천과 기능 [The synchronic transformations and functions of the Middle Korean connective suffix -tiWi]”, in Munhak-gwa Eoneo, volume 19, pages 29—54
- ^ 李知英 (2008), “節 結束力 變化의 觀點에서 본 終結語尾 '지'의 形成 [The formation of the sentence-final suffix -ci from the perspective of shifts in clausal cohesion]”, in Eomunnonhak, volume 36, issue 1, pages 105—130
- ^ 장윤희 (2012), “국어 종결어미의 통시적 변화와 쟁점 [A general survey of diachronic change of Korean sentence-terminating endings]”, in Gugeosa yeon'gu, volume 14, pages 63—99