See also:

Korean Edit

Etymology 1 Edit

Palatalized from earlier (Yale: -ti), short for Middle Korean 디〮ᄫᅵ〮 (Yale: -tíWí, contrastive suffix).[1][2][3] Compare Hamgyong Korean 지비 (-jibi), which has the most conservative form of this morpheme; Gyeongsang Korean (-jae) may also be a non-shortened form of 디〮ᄫᅵ〮 (Yale: -tíWí), via Early Modern Korean 지웨 (-ciwey).

Sentence-final use appears in the eighteenth century, arising from an omission of the second fact in colloquial speech.

Suffix Edit


  1. Used to contrast two facts regarding the same topic, thereby emphasizing both facts. In conversation, it is usually used to deny or qualify something the other person has said. The second fact tends to be negated or a rhetorical question.
    애국자 민족주의자 아닙니다.
    Na-neun aegukja-i-ji minjokjuuija-neun animnida.
    I am a patriot, not a nationalist.
    우리 반려견 가족처럼 생각해. 동물 어떻게 사람이냐?
    Uri-neun ballyeogyeon-eul gajok-cheoreom saenggak-hae. - Gae-ga dongmur-i-ji eotteoke saram-inya?
    We think of pet dogs like family. ― A dog is an animal; how can it be a human?
  2. Used to strongly emphasize a fact by connecting two differently worded statements amounting to the same meaning. The second statement tends to be negated or a rhetorical question.
    으면 살아있을 없다.
    Jug-eoss-eumyeon jug-eot-ji sara-isseul ri-ga eopda.
    He's dead for sure; no way he's alive.
  3. In the intimate style, a general-purpose sentence-final suffix with a more affirmative sense than (-eo):
    1. In the declarative mood, used to strongly affirm that something is the case.
      어떻게 .Eotteoke-deun ha-get-ji.He's going to do it, no matter the how.
      영국 봤어? ― .
      Yeongguk ga-bwasseo? ― ga-bwat-ji.
      Have you been to the United Kingdom? ― Of course I did.
    2. right?; in the interrogative mood, used to request confirmation about something one believes.
      어떻게 ?eotteoke-deun ha-get-ji?He's going to do it somehow, right?
      터키 원래 오스만?
      teoki-ga wollae Oseuman-i-eot-ji-yo?
      Turkey was originally the Ottomans, right?
    3. In the imperative mood, used to soften orders and make them more indirect.
      천천히 .Cheoncheonhi meok-ji.It might be good if you ate more slowly.
Usage notes Edit

(contrastive suffix):

  • The first fact is often given further emphatic force through the construction 으면... (-eumyeon... -ji), as in one of the examples above.
Alternative forms Edit

Etymology 2 Edit

From Middle Korean 디〮 (Yale: -tí), plausibly from ᄃᆞ (Yale: to, “fact”) + 이〮 (Yale: , nominative case marker); compare ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: -tól), of similar use in long negation and incorporating the accusative marker. Apparently a Middle Korean innovation; (*-n) and (*-lq) were used in Old Korean long negation.

Nam Pung-hyeon notes that Middle Korean 디〮 (Yale: -tí) and ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: -tól) apparently correspond to Old Korean 不知 (ANti, noun-negating particle) and 不冬 (ANtol, verb-negating adverb).

Suffix Edit


  1. Used for the negated verb or adjective in "long negation".
    담배 피우 맙시다.Dambae-reul piu-ji mapsida.Let's not smoke.
    않아.Man-chi-ga ana-yo.It's not much.
    서울 그랬네.Seour-e o-ji mal geol geuraenne-yo.I guess I shouldn't have come to Seoul.
    못해.Bab-eul meok-ji-do mot-hae-yo.He can't even eat.
Usage notes Edit

In long negation, a clause is negated with the verbs 않다 (anta, to not...), 아니하다 (anihada, (formal) to not...) 못하다 (mothada, to be unable to...), or 말다 (malda, to not do). The verb or adjective of the negated clause takes the suffix (-ji), which transforms the verb or adjective into the direct subject or object of the negating verb. Therefore, the verb negated via long negation can take (-ga, subject marker) or (-reul, direct object marker). Such case markers add a more emphatic nuance to the negation.

Long negation has a more formal connotation than the adverbial negators (an, not) and (mot, cannot). Compare:

Certain terms or expressions have a strong, sometimes obligatory, preference for one negation type or another. For example, adjectives derived from 스럽다 (-seureopda) are almost always negated by long negation, as are inherently negative verbs such as 없다 (eopda, to not have) and 모르다 (moreuda, to not know).

The adverbs negate only the verb or adjective, whereas long negation negates the entire embedded clause. While this difference is often not semantically meaningful, it can also lead to contrasting meanings, such as when the particle (-man, only) is involved:

  • 사과 먹어.
    Sagwa-man an meogeo.
    Apples are the only thing they don't eat.
  • 사과 먹지 않아.
    Sagwa-man meokji ana.
    They don't only eat apples [but they eat other things too].

In the first case, only the verb 먹다 (meokda, to eat) is negated. In the latter, the entire clause 사과 먹다 (sagwa-man meokda, to eat only apples) is negated.

For negative imperatives, long negation with 말다 (malda) is the only possibility, as no corresponding adverb exists.

Etymology 3 Edit

From Middle Korean 디〮 (Yale: -tí), from ᄃᆞ (Yale: to, “fact”) + 이〮 (Yale: , nominative case marker).

Suffix Edit


  1. Only used in 는지 (-neunji), 은지 (-eunji), 던지 (-deonji), 을지 (-eulji), and 을는지 (-eulleunji).

References Edit

  1. ^ 김종록 (1997), “중세국어 접속어미 '디ᄫᅵ'의 통시적 변천과 기능 [The synchronic transformations and functions of the Middle Korean connective suffix -tiWi]”, in Munhak-gwa Eoneo, volume 19, pages 29—54
  2. ^ ()()() (2008), “() ()()() ()()()()에서 본 ()()()() '지'의 ()() [The formation of the sentence-final suffix -ci from the perspective of shifts in clausal cohesion]”, in Eomunnonhak, volume 36, issue 1, pages 105—130
  3. ^ 장윤희 (2012), “국어 종결어미의 통시적 변화와 쟁점 [A general survey of diachronic change of Korean sentence-terminating endings]”, in Gugeosa yeon'gu, volume 14, pages 63—99