Appendix:Common Mongolic reconstructions

The following list of Common Mongolic reconstructions (i.e., reconstructions of the core branch of Mongolic languages) is from Nugteren (2011).[1]

Classification edit

Groups of languages:

  • central Mongolic: Mongol proper, Ordos, Oirat-Kalmuck, Buriat, Khamnigan
  • peripheral Mongolic: Non-central languages: Dagur, Eastern Yugur, Shirongol, Moghol
    • Shirongol: Mongghul, Mangghuer, Baoan, Kangjia, Dongxiang
      • Baoanic: subgroup of Shirongol, consisting of Baoan, Kangjia, and Dongxiang
      • Monguoric: subgroup of Shirongol, consisting of Mongghul and Mangghuer
      • Dongxiang = Santa
      • Baoan = Bonan
      • Sanchuan = (a variety of) Mangghuer

Most of the peripheral Mongolic languages, including the Qinghai-Gansu languages, are descended from Common Mongolic. However, Dagur, (one of) the most divergent Mongolic language, may not be descended from Common Mongolic according to Nugteren (2011). (Compare the similar concept of "Common Turkic," from which all living Turkic languages – except Chuvash – descend.)

Abbreviations edit

Abbreviation Language/Dialect
CM Common Mongolic
CT Common Turkic
PM Proto Mongolic
WM Written (Literary) Mongol
MMo Middle Mongol
QG Qīnghăi-Gānsù Languages: Eastern Yugur and Shirongol
Brg ‘Old’ Bargu dialect of Buriat
Bur Buriat
Dag Dagur (usually Butkha dialect)
Dgx Dongxiang (usually Suonanba dialect)
DgxL Longquan dialect of Dongxiang
EYu, EYugur Eastern Yugur
EYuQ Qinglong dialect of Eastern Yugur
Kalm Kalmuck
Kgj Kangjia
Kh Khalkha
Kmg Khamnigan
Mgr Monguor (both languages)
MgrH Mongghul = Huzhu Monguor
MgrM Mangghuer = Minhe Monguor (includes Sanchuan)
Mog Moghol
MogM Mangut dialect of Moghol
MogMr Marda dialect of Moghol
Ord Ordos

List edit

English meaning Common Mongolic comparisons notes
‘to stay, live’ *a- (?*a:-)
‘curds from fermented milk’ *aarča
‘to take, to get’ *ab-
‘paternal uncle’ *abaga
‘to wrestle’ *abaldu-
‘to take/bring with one’ *abčïra- and *ačara-
‘to load’ *ačï- (< *arčï-)
‘burden, load’ *ačïan (< *arčïan)
‘similar, same, as’ *adalï
‘herd (usually of horses)’ *aduun
‘to tend livestock’ *aduula-
‘livestock’ *aduusun
‘to borrow or lend’ *agsu-
‘gelding’ *agta *agtala- ‘to geld, castrate’
‘camp, group of tents; village; neighbour(hood)’ *aïl related to CT *a:gïl
‘tribe, village’ *aïmag related to CT *adgïr ‘id’ (perhaps ~ *adrïg?)
‘stallion’ *aǰïrga
‘elder brother’ *aka
‘crotch, groin; fork of trousers; hip’ *ala
‘to kill’ *ala-
‘multi-coloured, speckled, spotted’ *alag
‘demon, evil spirit’ *albïn Often used with *gal ‘fire’
‘to spread the legs’ *alčaï-/ *alčala-
‘fathom, armspan’ *alda
‘to lose, to let go of, etc’ *alda-
‘which’ *alï
‘give me’ *alï With several extended forms. Behaves like a verb and takes objects
‘fruit’ *alïma related to CT *alïmla, *alma ‘apple’
‘step’ *alku
‘to step’ *alku- see the noun *alku ‘step’
‘gold’ *altan cf. CT *altun ‘gold’
‘mouth’ *aman often also ‘opening’
‘opening (usu. of a vessel)’ *amasar apparently from *aman ‘mouth’
‘life; breath’ *amïn
‘alive’ *amïtu, *amïdu Both derived from *amïn
‘to taste’ *amsa-/ *amta- (the latter form influenced by *amtan?)
‘taste, flavour’ *amtan
‘rice; millet; rice gruel’ *amun also used for other cereals, or as a general term
‘name of several cereal dishes (not specified in the following); cooked rice’ *amusun apparently derived from *amun
‘to heal, get well, recover’ *ana- (?*hana-)
‘sworn friend; friend’ *anda
‘oath’ *andagar ~ andaga(ï)
‘plough’ *anǰasun ~ *anǰïsun
‘to open, open up (intr), to be agape, etc’ *aŋgaï- probably from *aŋ ‘crack, fissure’
‘alcoholic beverage’ *arakï ~ *arïkï
‘island; river’ *aral
‘shaft of a cart’ *aral
‘to exchange, trade’ *aralǰï-
‘skin; hide’ *arasun/*arïsʊn
‘barley’ *arbaï related to CT *arpa
‘cypress’ *arča cognate of CT *a:rtuč
‘to wipe, to clean; to weed’ *arčï- related to CT *arï-t- ‘id’; cf. *arčïur, *arïl-, *arïun
‘rag, dust-cloth; towel; scarf’ *arčïur
‘means, way, method, plan, ruse, shrewdness’ *arga
‘to become clean, to clear up; to disappear’ *arïl-
‘to clean’ *arïlga- in several languages also ‘to castrate’
‘molar; canine; fang, tusk’ *arïa often used with *sidün ‘tooth’
‘clean; pure’ *arïun related to *arčï- and *arïl- ‘above’
‘back, posterior side’ *aru
‘pannier, basket (carried on the back)’ *arug usu. a basket for collecting dung
‘to take care of; to bring up, raise; to adopt’ *asara-
‘to pour out, sprinkle, spill, scatter’ *aska-
‘broad, wide, vast’ *au (and *auï)
‘mountain’ *aula
‘steam; anger’ *aur see *haur
‘to sip’ *aučï- see *oačï-
‘to smell, taste’ *aus- (tr.), *austa- (intr)
‘lungs’ *auškï
‘cup, bowl’ *ayaga
‘camp’ *ayïl see *aïl
‘to fear’ *ayu- All modern forms derive from *ayi-
‘we (exclusive)’ *ba
‘to defecate’ *baa-
‘excrement; dung’ *baasun
‘hero’ *baatur Wanderwort also found in Turkic, Persian, and Russian
‘small’ *baga cf. *bïčïkan, *üčüken
‘to have the capacity of, to fit into, to suit; to sink’ *bagta-
‘to stand still, to stop, to pause’ *baï- *baï- ‘to be’ is a semantic development
‘mare’ *baïdasun/*baïtasun an alternative form *baïtal is found in Turkic
‘frog’ *baka CT *baka ‘id’; *melekei may have been the original Mongolic word for ‘frog’
‘honey’ *bal cf. CT *bal ‘id’
‘wall; town’ *bal(a)gasun CT *balïk ‘id’
‘to finish, end’ *bara-
‘right (hand side)’ *baraun
‘to grab, to hold, to take’ *barï- in several languages also ‘to build, make, do’
‘tiger’ *bars an Iranian word that probably entered via Turkic
‘again; also’ *basa related to CT *bas-a
‘strong, sturdy, firm (of people and objects)’ *batu
‘to descend, come down’ *bau-
‘rich’ *bayan related to CT *ba:y ‘id’
‘joy, happiness’ *bayar
‘to be glad, rejoice’ *bayas-
‘monkey, ape; ninth in the Twelve Animal cycle’ *bečin
‘ink stick; ink’ *beke a cultural word that probably entered from Turkic but is ultimately from Chinese
‘widow’ *belbisün may be of Iranian origin
‘pastureland’ *belčier
‘delta; confluence of rivers’ *belčir cf. Turkic *beltir
‘ready; ready-made’ *belen
‘daughter-in-law; bride’ *beri
‘sister-in-law’ *berigen and *bergei
‘body; person; side’ *beye
‘I’ *bï > *bi
‘small’ *bïčïkan
‘we (inclusive)’ *bïda (?and *biden)
‘I’ *bi
‘small bird’ *bïlduur ~ *bïlǰïur (cf. *sïbaun)
‘calf’ *bïrau (as based on Kh, Ord, Kalm)
‘quick, lively, smart’ *bïsïun ?cf. CT *bïšïg ‘mature’ (lit and fig)
‘to write’ *biči- One of the most widespread loanwords in Eurasia, ultimately from Chinese (cf. Turkic *biti-)
‘book, writing, letter (epistle)’ *bičig
‘coarse, crude’ *bidüün
‘whetstone’ *bileü related to CT *bi:legü
‘to believe in; to revere, worship’ *bisire-
‘to tie up, bundle, wrap’ *boa- cf. CT *bog-
‘name of various types of bread and pastry fried in oil’ *boarsag ~ *boarčug
‘pregnant; with foal, calf, etc’ *boas cf. CT *bogaz
‘large livestock (collective term for horses, camels, and bovines)’ *boda
‘to count; to calculate; to think; to plan’ *boda- cf. *sedki-
‘low, short (not tall)’ *boganï cf. CT *bokay
‘buttocks; anus’ *bogar (?*bogaar) and *bagaur (the same etymon?) cf. *bögse, *kondalaï, *konǰïasun
‘resin’ *bokï / *mokïn
‘to become, to be; to be possible or allowed’ *bol- cf. CT *bo:l- ‘id’
‘to ripen, to be cooked’ *bol-
‘all, every’ *bolgan
‘grey’ *bora cf. CT *boz
‘rain’ *boraan to be borrowed from Persian bârân
‘to get up, stand up’ *bos-
‘threshold’ *bosaga
‘camel foal’ *botaga(n) CT *boto ‘id’
‘quail’ *bödene
‘shaman, sorcerer’ *böe cf. CT *bögü ‘id’ cf. *ïdugan
‘to vomit’ *böelǰi- cf. *ogsï-
‘kidneys’ *böere
‘testicle’ *böesüg ~ *böesün cf. *böldegen
‘louse’ *böesün possibly related to CT *bö:g ‘spider’
‘to stop up; to block, barricade’ *bögle-
‘backside, buttocks’ *bögse cf. *bogar, *kondalaï
‘young hare’ *böǰen (?*böǰeŋ)
‘strong; wrestler’ *böke
‘hump of a camel’ *böken
‘gadfly, horsefly’ *bökene (?*bökeene) with several unexpected variant forms
‘testicles’ *böldegen
‘(piece of) cloth, textile; cotton cloth’ *bös Wanderwort (probably from Arabic bazz) that entered Mongolic from Turkic
‘bird’s crop, gizzard’ *bötege
‘to boil (intr)’ *bučal- *bučalga- ‘to boil (tr)’
‘grain, groats; porridge; meal’ *budaan
‘mist’ *budaŋ cf. *manan
‘to dye, paint’ *budu- cf. CT *boda-
‘dyestuff, paint’ *budug cf. CT *bodog
‘deer’ *bugu
‘camel’s nose-plug’ *buïla cf. *döre
‘dirt; dirty’ *buǰar
‘bull’ *buka related to CT *buka (?*bu:ka, ?*bukka) ‘id’
‘buttocks’ *bukaur see * bogaar
‘to bury’ *bula-
‘(water) spring’ *bulag cf. CM *kudug ‘well’
‘sable’ *bulagan (?*bulugan)
‘turbid, unclear’ *bulaŋgïr
‘gland’ *bulčïrkaï perhaps related to *bulčïn ‘muscle’ (not listed here)
‘to snatch away, seize’ *bulï- / *bulïa-
‘corner’ *buluŋ cf. CT *buluŋ ‘id’
‘pea, bean’ *burčag related to CT *burčak (?< burč-ak)
‘willow’ *burgasun cf. *hičesün
‘Buddha; deity’ *burkan Wanderwort that probably entered via Turkic *burkan
‘wrong, false, incorrect; mistake’ *buruu either endemic or related to CT *buz- ‘to spoil, ruin’
‘(is) not’ (typically the negation for nominal sentences) *busï (?*bïsï) *busu ‘other’
‘to be scattered, to fall apart, etc’ *butara-
‘wheat’ *buudaï related to CT *bugday ‘id’
‘groats, porridge’ above. *budaa
‘grey-haired; certain hair colour of animals, usu. shades of grey’ *buurul related to CT *bogrul
‘do not’ *bü (and *bu?) (negative (‘prohibitive’) particle used with imperatives and the like)
‘to stumble’ *büdüri-
‘to dance’ *büǰi- related to CT *bödi- ‘id’ *büǰig ‘dance’
‘all, every’ *büküli
‘gums’ *büile
‘warm, lukewarm’ *bülien
‘(finger) ring’ *bülǰeg loanword from CT *bilezük, probably < *bilek yüzük ‘wrist ring’
‘to stare, glare, to open one’s eyes wide’ *bültei-
‘flea’ *bürge (?*büürge) from CT *bürge
‘every, all, whole’ *büri
‘to cover; to become cloudy’ *bürkü-
‘lid, cover’ *bürküer and *bürküür
‘belt’ *büse
‘woman’ *büsegüi < *büse ügüi ‘without belt’
‘to be covered or blocked, to be shrouded (in mist or smoke); to suffocate’ *büte-
‘do not’ *bütegei (?*bitegei) (negative particle used with imperatives and the like)
‘double handful’ *büteü (?*biteü)
‘to finish, succeed, to be formed, concluded, completed’ *bütü-
‘complete, whole, entire; all’ *bütün
‘pommel of a saddle; bow or hind-bow of a saddle’ *büürge
‘over there, on the other side’ *čaa-da cf. *čïna- ‘the other side’
‘to(wards) that side’ *čaa-gsï
‘farther, yonder’ *čaa-na
‘paper’ *čaalsun ~ *čaarsun
‘to cut, chop, split, fell’ *čabčï-
‘to sprinkle’ *čaču- see *saču-
‘to have eaten one’s fill’ *čad-
‘time’ *čag
‘white’ *čagaan
‘to become white or bright’ *čaï- (often used in combination with *ör ‘dawn’)
‘iris (flower), orchid’ *čakïrma
‘flint; steel for flint; lighter; lightning’ *čakïur cf. CT *čak- ‘id’
‘snow’ *časun (?*čabsun)
‘shirt’ *čamča cf. also Manchu cimci ‘id’
‘grasshopper, locust’ *čarčaa(-kaï)
‘to tear to pieces’ *čaul- see s.v. *čoal-
‘flower’ *čečeg CT *čeček often also ‘smallpox’, as in CT *čeček
‘intelligent’ *čečen see *sečen
‘chest; memory’ *čeeǰi cf. *čeeǰile- ‘to recite from memory’
‘to measure’ *čene-
‘phlegm’ *čer
‘soldier; army’ *čerig cf. CT *čerig ‘id’, itself of Indic origin
‘you (sing.)’ *čï
‘jujube’ *čïbugan (?* čïbagan)
‘to be able’ *čïda-
‘to pour’ *čïdku- cf. *ki-, *tüsür-
‘strong, sturdy, tight’ *čïïrag related to CT *tïgrak
‘to squeeze into, to stuff’ *čïkï- related CT *tïk- The CM form may go back to an earlier (PM) form *tïkï-
‘ear’ *čïkïn
‘to be tired’ *čïla- see *čile-
‘stone’ *čïlaun CT *ta:š (in the Shirongol languages, EYu and Kgj)
‘martingale, part of a horse’s harness, etc’ *čïlbuur
‘temple (anat)’ *čïmarkaï
‘to cook’ *čïna-
‘the day after tomorrow’ *čïnaïda, *čïnar (and other derivates of *čïna-)
‘strong; tight’ *čïŋga
‘wolf’ *čïno
‘to listen’ *čïŋla- cf. CT *tiŋle- ~ *tïŋla- ‘id’, perhaps from Chinese tīng
‘face; facial expression’ *čïraï
‘to pull, drag’ *čïrï-
‘blood’ *čïsun The PM root may have been *ču- or *čï-
‘to gather, convene’ *čïul-
‘to stab’ *čiči- see *seči-
‘demon, devil’ *čidkör
‘horse’s hobble; shackles’ *čidör
‘moisture; moist, wet’ *čiig perhaps related to CT *čï: ‘moisture’ and/or *čï:g ‘dew’
‘to be tired, exhausted; to become numb or stiff’ *čile- (?*čïla-)
‘to pick’ *čilmö- see *čölbe-
‘free time’ *čilöe (?*čölee)
‘marrow; bone containing marrow’ *čimegen (?*čimögen)
‘to pinch, nip’ *čimki-
‘to pierce, puncture, perforate, make holes in’ *čoal- *čoara- ‘to be pierced, perforated, develop holes’
‘lock’ *čoarga / *čuurga
‘heap, pile’ *čogča
‘to gather’ *čogla- Zie *čugla-
‘to peck, pick’ *čokï-
‘Venus’ *čolban/*čolman CT cognate *čolpan ‘id’
‘few’ *čöen cf. also *üčüken
‘(wine) cup’ *čögeče (?*čögüčeg)
‘to pick, peck’ *čölbe- ~ *čölme-
‘to pick, pluck’ *čömü- perhaps related to *čimki- ‘to pinch’ and to *čölbe-
‘gall bladder’ *čösün see *sösün
‘to leak, drip’ *čuburï-
‘bundle’ *čug cf. CT *čug ‘id’
‘to bundle; to put together; to gather, assemble’ *čugla-
‘chisel’ *čüče see *siüči
‘to be able to carry or bear, etc’ *daa-
‘two-year-old foal; foal’ *daagan cf. *unagan
‘(lump of) shaggy hair’ *daakï related to CT *yapaku ‘matted wool, etc’, or to CT *yapak cf. *kumakï
‘to be cold; to feel cold’ *daara-
‘saddle gall, sore on an animal’s back’ *daarï related to Turkic *yagïr ‘id’
‘to pass by, drop in; to bump into, run over; to insult’ *daarï-
‘to cross, pass; to exceed’ *daba-
‘(urinary) bladder’ *dabasug ~ *dabusag (~ *dabasuŋ)
‘double; row; layer; folded’ *dabkur cf. *dabta- ‘to repeat’ (not listed here)
‘salt’ *dabusun PM root may have been *dabu-
‘to follow’ *daga- in Bao and Kgj also ‘to resemble’
‘war’ *daïn related to CT *yagï ‘enemy’
‘enemy’ *daïsun
‘fur coat (with the fur outside), raincoat’ *daku related to CT *yagku ‘id’, from *yag- ‘to rain’
‘sea’ *dalaï related to CT *taluy ‘id’, itself possibly a geographical name of Chinese origin
‘seventy’ *dalan related to *dolaan (< *daluan) ‘seven’
‘shoulder-blade, scapula’ *dalu
‘to carry on a carrying-pole, in a sedan chair, etc’ *damla-
‘lump, clod’ *daŋgal
‘wine (from fruit or cereals)’ *darasun
‘to press, push down, suppress’ *daru-
‘sound; voice; song’ *daun
‘to imitate, follow the example of’ *daurïa-
‘to be finished; to suffer, endure’ *daus-
‘to spread’ *debis- (>*debüs-)
‘mattress, bedding’ *debisker derived from *debis-
‘saddle cushion, undersaddle’ *debse probably related to *debis-
‘to be soaked, to be steeped’ *debte-
‘clothes, garment, jacket, coat, gown’ *deel
‘above, upper’ *deere perhaps from a PM root *depe- > *dehe-
‘rope, cord’ *deesün possibly related to the Turkic *yep, a NE variant of *yïp ‘thread’
‘mane’ *del related to CT *ye:l ‘id’
‘to wave, to fan’ *delbi- could be a borrowing from Turkic *yelpi- ‘id’ *delbiür ‘fan’
‘to beat’ *deled- variant *deles-
‘udder’ *deleŋ Turkic cognate *yelin ‘id’
‘to spread’ *delge-
‘spleen’ *deliün
‘pillow’ *dere
‘name of several reeds and grasses; rush mat’ *deresün probably related to CT *yez
‘younger sibling’ *deü
‘to hang up, suspend, attach’ *deüǰile- cf. *elgü-
‘to jump, leap’ *deüli- cf. *hüsür-
‘to carry sb/sth in front or behind while riding a horse’ *deür- possibly related to the Turkic form *ünger- (?*yünger-) cf. *sundala- which occurs in similar meanings
‘under’ *doa-ra
‘to gallop; to rush, charge, attack’ *dobtul-
‘to limp’ *dogal- *dogal-aŋ ‘limping, crippled’
‘fierce, cruel’ *dogsïn
‘to lick’ *dolïa- (> *dolaa-) CT *yalga- ‘id’ (problematic)
‘seven’ *dolaan earlier (PM) *daluan
‘tale, legend, fairy tale’ *domag related to CT *yomak ‘fairy tale’ in some languages ‘nonsense; mockery’
‘interior’ *dota-r *dota-ra ‘in, inside’
‘forty’ *döčin
‘four’ *dörben related to *döčin ‘forty’ and *dönen ‘four-year-old’ (not listed)
‘nose ring, camel’s nose peg’ *döre
‘stirrup’ *döree may be related to CT *(y)üzeŋ(g)ü ‘id’
‘anvil’ *dösi
‘directly; nearby’ *döte
‘fourth’ *dötüer cf. *dörben ‘four’ and *döčin ‘forty’, as well as *dönen ‘four-year-old’ (not listed)
‘warm’ *dulaan
‘middle’ *dumda possibly from a root *dum- + dat-loc ending
‘heart, mind; willingness; wish, desire; love, etc’ *duran
‘to drip, drop’ *dusu- cf. the caus. *dusaa- < *dusua-
‘to lack, to be insufficient’ *duta-
‘to flee’ *dutaa- cf. *horgu- ‘id’
‘to shave’ *düil- possibly irregularly related to CT *yilü- ‘id’ cf. *kïrga-
‘deaf’ *dülei
‘to sell’ *düre- Other Mongolic languages use *kudaldu-
‘to be(come) full’ *düür-
‘full’ *düüreŋ from *düür-
‘chest’ *ebčeün (~ *ebčiün) perhaps related to *ebür ‘bosom’
‘to break, destroy’ *ebde-
‘illness, disease’ *ebečin
‘to be ill; to hurt’ *ebed-
‘horn’ *eber (?*heber)
‘grass, weed’ *ebesün possibly from a PM root *ebe- + the (collective?) suffix *-sUn
‘to roll up, wrap up, fold’ *ebke-
‘to yawn’ *ebsie- (?*hebsie-)
‘knee’ *ebüdüg may be related to *emüdün ‘trousers’
‘elderly man’ *ebügen
‘winter’ *ebül/*öbül see *übül
‘bosom’ *ebür/*öber (?*h-) possibly related to *ebčiün ‘chest’
‘sunny spot; southern slope; front’ *ebür/*öber (?*h-)
‘to go’ *eči- may be related to CM *od- ‘to go’
‘father’ *ečige
‘thing; goods, merchandise; material; fabric’ *ed related to CT *ed originally probably a general term ‘goods’, in some modern languages also ‘fabric, textile’
‘to recover, heal, to come alive’ *edege-
‘now’ *edüe (> *edee) and *odua (> *odaa)
‘day’ *edür/ödür see *üdür
‘elder sister’ *egeči
‘such, this kind of’ *eimü from the pronominal (proximal demonstrative) root *e-, cf. also *ene ‘this’, *ende ‘here’, *ein ‘this way’ etc
‘like this, this way’ *ein Originated as a converb of *ei- ‘to do this way’. see *eimü
‘to do this way’ *ein ki- with several contractions and alterations; cf. *ein
‘master, owner, boss’ *eǰen
‘mother’ *eke
‘to bow, bend over, stoop’ *ekeyü-
‘twins’ *ekir or *ikir related to CT *ekkiz ‘id’, from *ekki ‘two’
‘abundant, superfluous’ *elbeg
‘to tan (a hide)’ *elde-
‘to be worn down, to wear out’ *ele-
‘sand’ *elesün cf. *kumag ~ *kumakï ‘sand’ (not listed)
‘to hang, suspend’ *elgü- cf. *deüǰile-
‘donkey’ *elǰigen related to CT *ešgek
‘medicine, remedy’ *em related to CT *em ‘id’
‘to fall apart, tumble down, collapse’ *embüre- cf. *nura-
‘egg’ *emdege(i) see *ömdegen
‘woman’ *eme
‘elderly woman; grandmother’ *emegen derived from *eme ‘woman’, cf. *berigen from *beri
‘saddle’ *emeel
‘to hold in the mouth’ *emkü-
‘wild, untamed’ *emlig cf. *oraa and *ǰerlig (the latter not listed here)
‘trousers’ *emüdün related to *emüs-
‘south; front, anterior’ *emüne
‘to put on, to wear (clothes)’ *emüs-
‘here’ *ende see s.v. *ene
‘this’ *ene cf. also *ende ‘here’, and several compounds with *ene listed as separate entries
‘today’ *ene üdür see *üdür ‘day’
‘this year’ *ene hon see *hon ‘year’
‘this evening, tonight’ *ene üdesi(leŋ) see *üdesi(leŋ) ‘evening’
‘here’ *ende cf. *ene ‘this’
‘front of a garment, flap of a garment’ *eŋger and *eŋge
‘blush; rouge’ *eŋgeske possibly related to CT *eŋ ‘cheek’ or ‘complexion’
‘virtue; specialty; science, learning’ *erdem cf. CT *erdem
‘man’ *ere possibly related to CT *er ‘id’
‘chin’ *ereün
‘shore, bank; cliff, precipice’ *ergi (?*hergi)
‘to lift, raise; to carry’ *ergü-
‘to look for; to want, wish for; to request’ *eri-
‘early; morning’ *erte related to CT *erte ‘id’
‘skylight, smoke-hole (of a yurt)’ *erüke
‘health(y)’ *erüül (?*ereül)
‘not’ *ese
‘opposite side’ *esergü (?*hesergü)
‘kid (young goat)’ *esige perhaps borrowed from CT *ečkü ‘goat’ cf. *ünügün ‘kid goat’
‘door’ *eüden
‘fat, grease’ *eükün/*öekün
‘cloud’ *eülen
‘to originate, arise, to be started’ *eüs- ~*eüd-
‘outside, exterior’ *gada-
‘stake’ *gadasun *kadaasun ‘nail’
‘peg, stake, pole’ *gadasun
‘nail’ *kadaasun
‘stake’ *gadasun and/or *kadaasun ‘nail’
‘alone’ *gagča ~ *gaŋča
‘land, earth, soil, place’ *gaǰar
‘pig’ *gakaï
‘fire’ *gal
‘goose’ *galaun
‘mad, insane’ *galǰau *galǰaura- ‘to go mad’
‘hand’ *gar
‘to come out, appear’ *gar-
‘bitter, sour’ *gasïun
‘copper, brass’ *gaulï
‘stubble, cut grain stalks; shaft of a feather’ *gaursun
‘to say’ *ge- see *kee-
‘intestines, bowels; belly’ *gedesün PM root may have been *gede- or *gete-
‘to lose; to let go of; to put down’ *gee-
‘light, bright’ *gegeen related to the verb *gei-
‘to become light, to shine’ *gei- cf. *gegeen
‘guest’ *geičin perhaps derived from *keid
‘back of the head; neck’ *geǰige cf. *gedei- ‘to bend backwards’, *gedergü ‘backwards’ (not listed)
‘to follow, catch up with’ *geli-
‘defect, damage; disease; fault; trouble’ *gem apparently related to CT *kem ‘illness’
‘male (of certain carnivores)’ *gendü
‘by accident; sudden(ly)’ *genedte
‘dwelling, house; Mongolian yurt’ *ger
‘brightness; torch; witness’ *gere
‘witness; proof’ *gereči ~ *gerečin
‘light, brightness’ *gerel possibly related to *gei- and *gegeen
‘(at) home’ *gerte/*gertü dative-locative case of *ger ‘house’
‘to melt, thaw’ *ges- cf. *sïrï- ‘to melt’
‘branch’ *gesiün cf. *salaa ‘id’
‘to step on; to trample’ *geški- perhaps the original form is *geǰki-
‘stairs, (step of a) staircase, (rung of a) ladder’ *geškiür from *geški- ‘to step on’
‘to cross, ford’ *getül- see ketül-
‘mare’ *geün cf. *baïtasun ‘id’
‘smooth; glossy, shiny’ *gïl- ~ *gil- ~ *ǰïl- ~ *ǰil-
‘Chinese chives and other bulbous plants’ *gogal, *gogasun, *gogad
‘hook, crook’ *goka
‘river, brook, streamlet, ditch’ *gol cf. *mören
‘hook; buckle, clasp’ *gorgï
‘shallow’ *göen (?and *göin)
‘puppy; whelp, cub (of carnivores)’ *gölige
‘to braid’ *göre- see *gürü- ‘id’
‘hunting; game’ *göree *göreesün ‘(wild) animal’
‘thirty’ *gučïn *gurban ‘three’ and *gunan ‘three-year-old’ (not listed)
‘boots’ *gudusun see *gutusun
‘flour’ *gulïr see *gurïl
‘roe deer; roebuck’ *gura
‘three’ *gurban cf. *gučïn ‘thirty’, *gutuar ‘third’, and *gunan ‘three-year-old’ (the latter not listed)
‘flour’ *gurïl
‘third’ *gutuar cf. *gurban ‘three’ and *gučïn ‘thirty’
‘boots’ *gutusun and *gutul as well as forms pointing at -d- rather then -t-
‘thigh’ *guya
‘to request, ask for, to beg’ *guyu-
‘to shake (off), to beat repeatedly, to thrash’ *gübi-
‘to run’ *güi- cf. *haul- ‘to run (mainly of animals)’
‘to catch up with, to overtake; to be completed, fulfilled’ *güiče- perhaps related to *güi- ‘to run’
‘belly, stomach’ *güǰeen
‘deep’ *gün
‘to plait, braid’ *gürü-
‘name of certain muscles, tendons, or veins’ *güreen
‘stone’ *gürü (?*kürü) cf. *čïlaun ‘stone’
‘bran’ *haaga
‘spider’ *haakaï and *haalǰïn
‘fork, bifurcation’ *hača
‘grandson; nephew/niece’ *hačï related to CT *atï ‘grandson’ < ?*hatï
‘to grab, to hold in the hand’ *hadku-
‘palm of the hand’ *halagan
‘(small) hammer’ *haluka
‘to rest’ *hamu- the caus. *hamuul-
‘to put to rest, etc’ *hamuul-
‘to rest’ *hamura-
‘to be thirsty’ *haŋga- ~ *haŋka- cf. *umdaas- elsewhere
‘to close one’s eyes’ *hanï- and *hanïï-
‘eyebrow; eyelash’ *hanïska derived from *hanï-
‘ten’ *harban perhaps *ha + -rban or *har + -ban
‘dung; dried cow dung (used as fuel)’ *hargal, *hargasun related to CT *hark ‘dung’ cf. *baasun, *komaul, *korgasun, *öteg (?), *ǰundaul
‘to ask’ *hasag- ~ *hasagu- ~ *hasau-, etc cf. *sura- ‘id’
‘to steal’ *kulag-
‘to run’ *haul- cf. *güi- ‘to run’
‘air; steam; anger’ *haur
‘(double) handful’ *hayag
‘to become tired or emaciated’ *heče-
‘to cut’ *hedke- (~ *heske- ~ *hečke-) The original form may have been *heǰke-, perhaps from PM *peǰke-
‘to warm; to dry in the sun; to bake, roast’ *hee- cf. ?*hebür ‘sunny spot’
‘to choke from crying, to have a fit of crying or a tantrum’ *heere-
‘to part, to leave each other’ *heil-
‘head’ *hekin cf. *teriün ‘head’, *tolagaï ‘head’, *tarïkï ‘brain’
‘to float; to soar’ *heli-
name for various birds of prey, usually ‘kite’ *helie possibly originally the nomen imperfecti of *heli- above
‘liver’ *heligen
‘butterfly’ *herbeekei ~ *herbekei
‘thumb’ *herekei PM root may have been *pere- > *here-
‘to turn, to move around’ *hergi-
‘prayer beads’ *herike (?*herke)
‘handle, grip’ *hesi
‘nest; grave’ *heür
‘shell (mollusk)’ *hïbau (?*hïbuu)
‘fly’ *hïlua cf. *sïmaul, *sona
‘bottom part, underside’ *hïra (?)
‘bottom, base, ground’ *hïruar ~ *hïraur
‘narrow, tight’ *hïutan (~ *huïtan) perhaps related to *hïbčau
‘to protect, defend, to help’ *hibee- (~ *ihee-)
‘to be ashamed’ *hiče-
‘willow’ *hičesün (?*hičöesün)
‘sword’ *hildü see *ildü ~ *üldü
‘tinea, ringworm (skin affliction)’ *hilidün
‘superfluous, etc.’ *hileü see *hüleü
‘to laugh’ *hinie-
‘edge of a knife’ *hir
‘to wish well, to bless’ *hiröe-
‘wish; prayer; curse’ *hiröer/*hiröel
‘star’ *hodun PM root may have been *po-
‘to cut, harvest; to fell’ *hogtal- intransitive *hogtara- and intensive *hogtačï-
‘forest’ *hoï
‘short’ *hokar
‘(the duration of a) year’ *hon cf. *ǰil ‘(calendar) year’, *nasun ‘year (of age)’
‘crown of the head; top, summit’ *horaï
‘to turn (intr); to go’ *horčï- cf. *eči- (*očï-) and *od-
‘to turn (tr.)’ *horčïul- Caus. of *horčï-
‘to boil, to bubble, to gush forth’ *horgï-
‘to flee’ *horgu- cf. *dutaa- ‘id’
‘to bind, wind, spin, wrap’ *horïa-
‘feather’ *hödün PM root *pɵ-
‘hoopoe’ *höelǰin (*böelǰin, *höbelǰin, *böbelǰin)
‘pus, matter’ *höesün (*höersün) cf. *idee ‘id’
‘to hit, strike, beat’ *högi- (?)
‘to roll, tumble’ *höŋkeri-
‘drill, auger’ *hörüm
‘larva, maggot; worm’ *hötü ~ *hödü
‘root; origin, source’ *huǰaur ~ *hïǰaur see also *ündüsün for the literal meaning ‘root’
‘tinder, etc’ *hula (?*huula) cf. *kete
‘red’ *hulaan
‘to become red’ *hulaï-
‘poplar, aspen’ *hulïasun
‘to swim’ *humba-
‘smoke’ *hunïn cf. *hutaa ‘smoke’
‘to ride on horseback; to mount’ *hunu-
‘to break wind, fart’ *huŋgu-
‘fart’ *huŋgusun from *huŋgu-
‘lasso, noose, snare, trap’ *huraka (?*hurïka)
‘to turn (around) (intr)’ *hurba-
‘sling (for hurling stones), slingshot’ *hurbï (?*hurbaï)
‘downward; downstream’ *huruu cf. *dɔara, *hïra (s.v. *hïraur)
‘lip(s)’ *huruul cf. *kosïun ‘beak, snout’, and *kirbei ‘edge’
‘thread’ *hutasun
‘to emit smoke’ *hutu-
‘smoke’ *hutua (> *hutaa) Elsewhere *hunïn is used
‘bag, sack’ *huuta
‘to tie, fasten’ *huya- cf. *kaa-
‘to patch, mend’ *hüde- (?*hüdü-)
‘patch (on clothes)’ *hüdesün (perhaps *hüdeesün < *hüdüesün) cf. *kalaasun
‘deep’ *hügün see *gün
‘tip, end’ *hüǰüür (?*üǰüür) compare variants of *üǰe- ‘to see’, *eüdün ‘door’
‘bovine; ox’ *hüker related to CT *höküz ‘ox’
‘to drive; to chase, pursue; to expel, drive out’ *hülde-
‘to remain, to be left’ *hüle- cf. *kočar-
‘superfluous, more than; surplus, excess’ *hüleü/*hileü
‘to blow’ *hülie- (~ *hüile-)
‘to fall apart, to become worn out or gappy’ *hültüre-
‘stinking, malodorous’ *hümekei ~ *hümükei probably derived from *hüü- ‘to rot’ and possibly also related to *höesün ‘pus’
‘to wrinkle, shrivel, contract’ *hümeri-
‘fox’ *hünegen
‘ashes’ *hünesün
‘smell, odour, aroma’ *hünir (?*hünür) *hünirde-, *hünirte- ‘to smell (tr.)’
‘to smell’ *hünirte-)
‘to smell (tr)’ *hünis- ~ *hünüs-
‘to crumple; to rub between the hands’ *hüŋgü-
‘seed; pip; fruit’ *hüre
‘to be startled, frightened (typically of animals)’ *hürgü- related to CT *hürk- ‘id’
‘to rub (off) with the hands, to grind, etc’ *hürü-
‘hair’ *hüsün PM root may be *hü- (?*pü-)
‘to jump, leap’ *hüsür-
‘vagina’ *hütügün
‘to stink’ *hüü- and *höe- ‘to rot, fester’ (?)
‘(s)he, it’ *ï (?) genitive *ïnu
‘narrow, tight’ *ïbčau
‘shaman(ess)’ *ïdugan cf. *böe
‘to choose, select, distinguish’ *ïlga- cf. *soŋgu-
‘goat’ *ïmaan related to CT *(y)ïmga ‘id’
‘hither, to this place’ *ïnagsï from a root *ïna- ‘this side’
‘fawn, young deer or antelope’ *ïnǰaga
‘packsaddle’ *ïŋgarčag
‘melody, melodious; singing’ *ïrau CT *yïr-a-gu from CT *(y)ïr ‘song’
‘omen, premonition, etc’ *ïro possibly related to CT *ïrk ‘id’
‘soot’ *ïsu (?) see *is(ü)
‘hazel-grouse, partridge or other large member of the chicken family’ *ïtau
‘to flow (of milk from the udder)’ *ibil- (?*ibel-)
‘to eat’ *ide-
‘pus’ *idee cf. *höesün ‘id’
‘spindle, spindle whorl’ *ig (?*yig)
‘twins’ *iker see *ekir
‘magic; sleight of hand, conjuring tricks’ *ilbi cf. Turkic *yelvi
‘to rub; to smooth with the hand’ *ilbi-
‘sword, sabre’ *ildü cf. CT *kïlïč ‘sword’, also used for ‘shuttle’ in several Turkic languages with an early ‘prebroken’ variant *üldü. Both forms survive
‘clear, visible, obvious, evident’ *ile (?*hile)
‘to go’ *ile- *ilee- (< causative) (and newly-formed *ile-ge-) ‘to send, dispatch’
‘leopard, panther’ *irbis
‘to come’ *ire-
‘wether’ *irge related to CT *irk
‘people’ *irgen
‘to turn sour, ferment’ *is- caus. *iske-, and some further derivations
‘felt, felt blanket’ *isegei ~ *sisegei
‘to whistle’ *iskir-
‘soot, lampblack’ *is or *isü or *isün or *ïsu ??
‘to believe, trust’ *itege- cf. *bisire-
‘species of falcon’ *itelgü
‘to tell, announce, indicate’ *ǰaa-
‘musk’ *ǰaarï see *ǰïarï
‘interval, spare time’ *ǰab
‘gap; gorge, ravine’ *ǰaba
‘insipid, tasteless’ *ǰabaan related to CT *yavgan
‘corner of the mouth’ *ǰabaǰï
‘to sit cross-legged’ *ǰabïla- ~ *ǰamïla-
‘crack, crevice; groin’ *ǰamï, which stem may survive in MgrH ʒ́a:mi: X214
‘to lose, be lost (esp. of animals)’ *ǰabka- cf. also *ǰabkara- ‘to get lost, disappear’
‘gap, crack; space or time between, interval’ *ǰabsar
‘to itch, tickle’ *ǰagala- (and related formations)
‘fish’ *ǰagasun
‘to chew’ *ǰaǰïl-
‘edge; collar’ *ǰaka CT *yaka ‘collar’
‘space between’ *ǰakaun
‘(red) tassel’ *ǰalaa perhaps related to CT *yalïg ‘cock’s comb’
‘young (person)’ *ǰalau related to CT *ya:š ‘id’ probably from a stem *ǰala-
‘to beg, request; to pray’ *ǰalbarï- cf. CT *yalvar- ‘id’
‘to join, connect’ *ǰalga-
‘to swallow’ *ǰalgï- ~ *ǰalkï-
‘lazy’ *ǰalkaï and *ǰalkau cf. *kašaŋ ‘lazy’
‘shrewd’ *ǰalïkaï
‘to beat, pound (usu. with an axe, hammer, etc)’ *ǰančï- seems to be influenced by *čabčï- ‘to chop’
‘knot’ *ǰaŋgï, *ǰaŋgïa *ǰaŋgïd-, *ǰaŋgïla- ‘to tie a knot’
‘hedgehog’ *ǰarïa
‘half (orig. adj)’ *ǰarïm cf. CT *ya:r-ïm from the verb *ya:r- ‘to split’ *ǰarïm-dug/-tug ‘half (noun)’
‘groats; hail’ *ǰarma CT *ya:r-ma cf. *möndür ‘hail’
‘to use; to employ; to slaughter’ *ǰaru-
‘to regulate, bring in order’ *ǰasa- in modern languages usually ‘to repair; to make, manufacture; to fix’
‘to bite; to sting’ *ǰau-
‘mediator, go-between, matchmaker’ *ǰaučï possibly related to *ǰaura ‘space between’. cf. *ǰo(l)čïn ‘guest’
‘lily bulb’ *ǰaugasun
‘heel (of foot or footwear)’ *ǰauǰaï cf. *ösegei ‘heel’
‘hundred’ *ǰaun
‘space between’ *ǰaura cf. *ǰaučï ‘matchmaker’; possibly also related to *ǰab, *ǰabsar ‘interval’
‘wolf’ *ǰauraŋgaï/*ǰaurakaï cf. *čïno
‘fate, destiny, luck, etc’ *ǰayaan
‘rust’ *ǰebe (?*ǰebi)
‘cousin’ *ǰee Turkic cognate *yegen ‘id’
‘Mongolian gazelle (kind of antelope)’ *ǰeeren related to CT *yegren ‘id’
‘long rope to which the tethers of cattle are attached’ *ǰele (?*ǰelü) related to CT *yelü ‘id’
‘to wear (usu. an ornament)’ *ǰeü- cf. *emüs- ‘to wear (clothes)’
‘dream’ *ǰeüdün
‘left; east’ *ǰeün cf. *solagaï ‘left’
‘needle’ *ǰeün
‘to announce, etc’ *ǰïa- see *ǰaa-
‘musk’ *ǰïar(ï) (> *ǰaar(ï))
‘spear, lance’ *ǰïda
‘fish’ *ǰïgasun see *ǰagasun
‘ravine, gorge, chasm, abyss’ *ǰïlga
‘reins’ *ǰïloa
‘glue, paste’ *ǰïlsun
‘to be glad or happy’ *ǰïrga-
‘six’ *ǰïrguan
‘sixty’ *ǰïran related to *ǰïrguan ‘six’
‘amble; ambler’ *ǰïroa
‘to paint; to write’ *ǰïru-
‘two’ *ǰi- see *ǰitüer ‘second’
‘to stretch, extend’ *ǰii- cf. *sun-
‘(calendar) year, year of the Twelve Animal Cycle’ *ǰil cf. *hon ‘(duration of a ) year’; *nasun ‘(year of) age’
‘to cut’ ?*ǰir-
‘bellyband on the left side of the saddle’ *ǰirim cf. *olaŋ
‘heart’ *ǰirüken see *ǰürüken
‘to cut, slice, split’ *ǰisü-
‘colour (esp. of the hair of an animal); complexion; appearance, looks’ *ǰisün
‘second; co-wife’ *ǰitüer and *ǰitüen ‘competition’
‘wing’ *ǰiür
‘to suffer, to worry’ *ǰoba-
‘guest’ *ǰočïn related to CT *yo:l-čï ‘traveller’ < *yo:l ‘road’
‘to fit, to suit’ *ǰokï-
‘to meet; to visit’ *ǰolga- Turkic *yo:l-uk- ‘id’
‘to plane, shave, peel, pare off’ *ǰor- cf. *ǰir- and *ǰisü
‘to point at’ *ǰorï- with derived meanings like ‘to aim’ and ‘to intend’
‘ambler’ *ǰoraa see *ǰïroa
‘right, correct, proper’ *ǰöb
‘to carry, transport’ *ǰöe-
‘soft’ *ǰöelen (?*ǰeülen)
‘cold’ *ǰöen central Mongolic *ǰöeg ‘lukewarm, cool’
‘transverse; askew; stubborn’ *ǰöriü
‘thick; dense’ *ǰuǰaan
‘(oil) lamp’ *ǰula cf. CT *yula ‘id’
‘fontanel, sinciput’ *ǰulaï (*ǰula)
‘young of an animal, offspring’ *ǰulǰaga(n)
‘suslik (ground squirrel)’ *ǰumuran
‘summer’ *ǰun cf. *naǰïr ‘id’
‘suslik’ *ǰuruman see *ǰumuran
‘to mix, stir; to knead’ *ǰuura- CT equivalent *yogur- ‘id’
‘direction, side’ *ǰüg
‘heart’ *ǰürüken Turkic cognate *yürek ‘id’
‘where?’ *kaa, *kaana
‘to close, enclose; to block, shut off’ *kaa-
‘khan, king, emperor’ *kaan Widespread Eurasian word
‘to roast, burn’ *kaarï- in some languages ‘to cauterize, to geld’
‘wild boar’ *kaban/*kabaŋ
‘nose’ *kabar/*kamar
‘to swell’ *kabïd- (*kabud-)
‘rib; side, vicinity’ *kabïrga also used as postposition
‘rib; side’ *kabïsun cf. *kabïrga
‘flat’ *kabtagaï cf. *kabtasun ‘board’
‘board’, often the ‘sideboards supporting the saddle’ *kabtasun cf. *kabtagaï
‘bag, sack, (tobacco) pouch’ *kabturga may be related to CT *ka:p ‘bag’
‘spring (season)’ *kabur
‘cheek(s)’ *kačar
‘rock; overhanging rock; ravine’ *kada
‘to nail down; to sew on (a button or a sole)’ *kada- related to CT *kadu- (some languages suggest *kadï-) cf. *kadaasun ‘nail’
‘bit of a horse’s bridle’ *kadaar see *kaǰaar
‘nail’ *kadaasun derives from *kada- ‘to nail’
‘to prick, sting, stab, pierce’ *kadku-
‘to cut, harvest’ *kadu-
‘sickle’ *kaduur derived from *kadu-
‘family-in-law’, and ‘-in-law’ as added to kinship terms. *kadum Similar to the synonymous CT *kadïn
‘to separate; to part with, etc’ *kagača- probably related to *kagal-, *kagara-
‘to break, split, burst (tr.)’ *kagal-
‘to break, split, burst (intr.)’ *kagara-
‘scissors’ *kaïčï
‘to make a noise; to shout; to cry’ *kaïla-
‘elm tree’ *kaïlasun
‘yak’ *kaïnag (?and *kaïnug)
‘(what a) pity, mercy, care, affection’ *kaïran
‘fish’s scale’ *kaïrsun
‘to bite’ *kaǰa-
‘bit of a horse’s bridle’ *kaǰaar/*kadaar (<*kadïar/*kadaar) probably related to *kaǰa- ‘to bite’
‘to choke (intr), to be suffocated; for sth to be stuck in one’s throat’ *kaka-
‘hot’ *kalaun from the verb *kala-
‘spoon’ *kalbuga Turkic *kašuk; perhaps of Tibetan origin
‘wild onion and similar plants’ *kalïar, *kalïarsun
‘bark, rind, peel, outer covering, thin skin’ *kalïsun
‘to glide, slip’ *kaltara-, *kaltarï-
‘(of eyes) to be dazzled; (of teeth) to tingle or to feel rough (e.g. after eating sth. sour)’ *kama- ~ *kaba- cf. CT *kama-
‘sleeve’ *kamčuï ~ *kamčun
‘together; at the same time’ *kamtu
‘all’ *kamug cf. Turkic kamug < kamag, a Middle Persian loanword
‘to cough’ *kanïa- *kanaa- in EYu, MgrH, Bao, and Dgx
‘black’ *kara related to Turkic *kara
‘to look at’ *kara-
‘placenta, afterbirth (of an animal)’ *karbïsun reminiscent of *karbïn ~ *arbïn ‘belly fat’ (not listed)
‘to shoot’ *karbu- Monguoric *karmu-
‘ballista’ *karbuur see *hurbï
‘to return’ *karï-
‘to abuse, swear, curse’ *karïa- related to CT *karga- ‘id’ cf. *sögee-, *hiröe-
‘swallow’ *karïačaï reminiscent of Turkic *karlïgač ~ *kargïlač ‘id’
‘lazy, slow (usu. of animals)’ *kašaŋ from Turkic *kašaŋ ‘id’ cf. *ǰalkaï and *ǰalkau
‘hard’, also ‘difficult’ *katau cf. CT *katïg ‘hard’ from the verb *kat- from CM *kata- ‘to be or become hard or dry’
‘empress; wife; woman’ *katun CT *ka:tun. Widespread in Asia.
‘all, everybody’ *kau and/or *koa may be related to CT *kop ‘all’ CM form *koa
‘old’ *kaučïn
‘to peel, to skin’ *kaul-
‘to shed (skin)’ *kaura- cf. *koltul-
‘law, rule’ *kaulï
‘to stir-fry’ *kaur- cf. CT *kagur- cf. *kaarɪ-
‘file (the tool)’ *kauraï
‘dry’ *kauraï see *kuuraï
‘chaff, bran, husks’ *kebeg
‘fragile, brittle, crisp’ *kebereg and *keüreg from Turkic *kevrek
‘to chew; to ruminate’ *kebi- cf. CT *kev-
‘shop’ *kebid see *keid
‘to lie down’ *kebte-
‘slope’ *keče
‘how much, how many’ *kedüi and *kedün related to *ken ‘who’ and *keǰie ‘when’
‘to say’ *kee- Modern languages suggest a form *ge-
‘belly, abdomen’ *keeli PM *keheli < *kepeli
‘animal colour (usu. varieties of brown)’ *keer
‘field, plain, steppe’ *keere (?*keer) PM variants *keper ~ *keber
‘spoke’ *kegesün
‘wind’ *kei cf. *salkïn ‘wind’
‘temple’ and *kebid ‘shop’ *keid from CT *kepit < Iranian
‘when’ *keǰie > *keǰee related to *kedün ‘how many’ and *ken ‘who’
‘to belch, burp’ *kekere- or *kekire- related to CT *ke:kir-
‘tongue; speech, language’ *kelen
‘to speak’ *kele- (< *kelele-) All peripheral languages have the shortened form
‘to gnaw’ *kemile- probably derived from a noun *kemi ‘soft bone’
‘who’ *ken related to *kedün ‘how many’ and *keǰie ‘when’
‘drum’ *keŋgerge
‘to cut, mince’ *kerči- cf. CT *kert- ‘id’
‘need, necessity; matter, affair, business’ *kereg cf. CT *kergek > *kerek ‘id’
‘to use, employ; to need, want’ *keregle-
‘to quarrel, have an argument’ *kereldü- Reciprocal of *kere- ‘to fight’
‘crow’ *kerie
‘part, piece’ *keseg cf. *kes-ek from *kes ‘piece’, homophone of *kes- to cut’
‘part, share, lot, fate’ *kesig CT *kes-ig from *kes- ‘to cut’
‘to lie down’ *kete- see *kebte-
‘steel for striking fire’ *kete cf. *čakïur
‘to cross, to wade across’ *ketül-
‘child’ *keü, *keüken listed under *köbeün
‘to kill, massacre’ *kïdu-
‘side, edge, border’ *kïǰaar
‘easy’ *kïlbar
‘coarse hair’ *kïlgasun related to CT *kïl cf. *hüsün, *noasun
‘cheap’ *kïmda
‘nail, claw’, sometimes ‘hoof’ *kïmusun
‘hoar-frost’ *kïrau from CT *kïr-a-gu ‘id’
‘to shave, shear, scrape’ *kïrga- cf. CT *kïrk- ‘id’
‘name of some birds of prey’ *kïrguï cf. CT *kïrguy
‘pheasant’ *kïrgaul ~ *kurgaul
‘penis’ *kïrǰaŋ with several other meanings in central Mongolic
‘fine snow’ *kïrmag
‘to scrape’ *kïsu-
‘infertile, barren’ *kïsuraŋ related to CT *kïsïr, *kïsrak
‘Chinese’ *kïtad apparently from Turkic *kïtay > CT *kïtañ
‘knife’ *kïtuga(ï)
‘nit’ *kïursun
‘to do’ *ki- in Dag also ‘to write’, under Tungusic influence (e.g. Manchu ara- ‘to do; to write’)
‘to be’ *a-
‘to pour’ *ki- cf. *čïdku-, *tüsür-, *yeü-
‘edge’ *kirbei
‘saw’ *kirüe > *kiröe
‘all’ *koa see *kau
‘to dry (intr), wither’ *koa-
‘throat’ and *koala(ï) ‘food’ *koala(ï)
‘two’ *koar see *koyar
‘dry’ *koasun see *koasun ‘empty’
‘empty’ *koasun likely to be the same word as *koasun ‘dry’
‘to remain’ *kočar-
‘plant waste, sweepings, garbage, filth’ *kog
‘northern side; seat of honour’ *koïmar probably related to *koï- ‘behind; north’, but the suffix is unclear
‘back, posterior side, behind, later, etc’ *koïna There are many other derivations of the same stem *koïgsï ‘backwards’, *koïtu ‘posterior (adj)’ (not listed)
‘far’ *kola cf. *alus ‘far’ (not listed here)
‘unpleasant smell, smell of sweat’ *kolaŋsa (?)
‘to connect, join, unite’ *kolba- cf. *ǰalga-
‘to mix’ *kolï-
‘to peel, to skin’ *koltul- with intr. counterpart *koltura- ‘to peel off, fall off, etc’; cf. *kaul-
‘saddle pad, felt under the packsaddle’ *kom
‘horse dung’ *komaul ~ *komual cf. Turkic *komuk cf. for a parallel case *ǰundaul (as in SH) corresponding to CT *yundak
‘millet’ *konag entered from Turkic in recent centuries
‘fallow, light bay, etc’ *koŋgar cf. CT *koŋur
‘bell’ *koŋka
‘sheep’ *konïn related to CT *ko:ñ
‘colon; anus’ *konǰïasun, *kondasun
‘buttocks, hindquarters’ *koŋgaï, *kondaska; *kondarčag, all with meanings like
‘poison’ *kora
‘insect/worm’ *korakaï PM root may be *kora-
‘sheep, goat, or camel dung’ *korgal, *korgasun
‘courtyard; enclosure (usu. for keeping livestock in)’ *korïan from *korï- ‘to protect’
‘twenty’ *korïn related to *koar
‘skirt, lower hem’ *kormaï
‘pair; double’ *koš (> *kos) probably adopted from Turkic *koš
‘bill, beak’ *kosïun
‘enclosure; walled town’ *kotan
‘two’ *koyar (?~ *koar) cf. *korïn ‘twenty’; perhaps related to *koï- ‘after’. Endemic, unless in some way related to *kos
‘bowstring’ *köbči
‘boy, child’ *köbeün, *köün, *keü
‘children (sons and daughters)’ *köbeün ökin and/or *keü ökin
‘child’ *keüken diminutive of *keü
‘hazel grouse’ *ködee (?)
‘to move (intr)’ *ködel-
‘soot (usu. on the bottom of a pan)’ *köe
‘to foam; to swell’ *köe- cf. CT *köp-ük ‘foam’, *köpür- ‘to foam’
‘bridge’ *köerge (?*küürge) related to CT *köprüg ‘id’
‘bellows’ *köerge (?*küürge) related to CT *kö:rk ‘id’
‘foam, froth’ *köesün derived from *köe
‘old (animate)’ *kögsin
‘navel, umbilicus; umbilical cord’ *köi, *köisün
‘cold’ *köiten
‘blue, green’ *köke cf. CT *kö:k ‘id’
‘to suck the breast’ *köke- see *köken
‘breast’ *köken see *köke-
‘forelock of a horse; braid of hair’ *kökül
‘leather vessel for liquids; snuffbottle’ *köküür cf. *köerge
‘foot’, often also ‘leg’ *köl
‘to harness an animal (to a cart or plough)’ *köl- (?)
‘to roll’ *kölberi- see *körbe-
‘to freeze’ *kölde- perhaps from the same root as *kör-, *kösi- (not listed here) ‘to freeze’, *köiten ‘cold’
‘sweat’ *kölesün
‘to harness’ *kölle- (?) see *köl-
‘to put upside down; to overturn, topple’ *kömeri-
‘eyebrow’ *kömeske cf. *hanïska
‘breast strap of a horse’s harness’ *kömüldürge related to CT *kömüldürük < *köŋül- ‘heart’
‘trunk, chest’ *kömürge
‘horizontal, across, transverse’ *köndelen
‘yeast, leaven’ *könerge ~ *köreŋge
‘blanket, quilt’ *könǰile(n)
‘hollow, empty’ *köŋdei
‘light(weight)’ *köŋgen
‘to freeze, to become cold’ *kör- perhaps related to *köiten and/or *kölde-
‘lamb’ *körbe (?*kürbe)
‘to roll on the back; to turn’ *körbe-
‘yeast’ *köreŋge see *könerge
‘crust’ *körisün
‘to mince, cut up’ *köskele-
‘to lead by the hand, to lead along’ *kötel-
‘clothes’ *kubčasun
‘part, share’ *kubï
‘to divide’ *kubïa- from *kubï
‘to change, turn into’ *kubïl- from a root *kubï-
‘ram’ *kuča related to CT *koč, *kočŋar/*kočgar
‘to bark’ *kuča-
‘to cover, wrap up in’ *kučï-
‘men related through the marriage of their children’ *kuda
‘women related through the marriage of their children’ *kudagaï
‘lie, falsehood’ *kudal
‘to trade, sell’ *kudaldu- cf. *düre- used instead in Dag, MgrM, and Mog
‘to stir, mix, blend’ *kudku-
‘well’ *kudug CT *kudug from *kud- ‘to pour’ cf. *bulag ‘spring’
‘crupper’ *kudurga related to CT *kuduruk ‘tail’ and *kudušgun ‘crupper’
‘to break (tr.)’ *kugul- (?*kukul-)
‘to break (intr.)’ *kugura- (?*kukura-)
‘sheath (of a knife)’ *kuï
‘thief; theft’ *kulagaï see *kulagu-
‘to steal’ *kulag- ~ *kulagu- ~ *kulau- related to *kulagaï
‘mouse, rat’ *kulugana possibly originally an Ersatzwort related to the verb *kulagu- ‘to steal’
‘reed; bamboo’ *kulusun
‘to fold, to bundle together, wrap up; to gather’ *kumï- (?~ *kumbï-)
‘rain’ *kura
‘sharp’ *kurča cf. CT *kurč ‘tough, hard’
‘fast, quick’ *kurdun
‘to gather (tr.)’ *kurïa- This is the caus. form of *kurï- ‘to gather (intr)’
‘banquet, feast; wedding (banquet)’ *kurïm from *kurï- ‘to gather’, for which see *kurïa-
‘lamb’ *kurïgan
‘finger’ *kuruun
‘lute, stringed musical instrument’ *kuur cf. the cognate CT form *kopuz ‘id’
‘dry’ *kuuraï (?*kauraï)
‘armour’ *kuyag related to CT *kuyag
‘strength, force’ *küčün ~ *küčin cf. CT *kü:č
‘to overtake’ *küiče- see *güiče-
‘incense, incense stick, perfumery’ *küǰi cf. Turkic *küži, probably itself a loanword
‘neck’ *küǰüün
‘to bind, tie, tighten’ *küli-
‘kind of onion’ *kümeli perhaps related to Turkic (NE) *kömürgen/*kövürgen
‘heavy’ *kündü
‘provisions’ *künesün
‘to reach, arrive’ *kür-
‘to send, deliver’ *kürge- Originally the caus. of *kür- ‘to reach’
‘son-in-law; brother-in-law; husband’ *küregen Apart from Bur the modern languages have all developed from a disyllabic *kürgen
‘enclosure, etc’ *kürien cf. *korïa, *kotan
‘spade, shovel’ *kürǰeg ~ *kürǰe cf. CT *kürek ‘id’ < *küre- ‘to shovel; to row’
‘to wish, desire’ *küse- CT *küse- ‘id’
‘person, human being’ *küün
‘secretion of the eye’ *lauka see *nauka
‘mule’ *lausa Loanword from Chinese luózi ‘id’
‘bottle’ *loŋka probably a foreign word; possibly a dissimilation of an earlier *nɔnka
‘here, take it, here you are’ *maa ~ *maï cf. the opposite term *alï ‘give me’
‘to scratch’ *maaǰï-
‘to bleat’ *maara- see *maïla-
‘hat, headgear’ *magalaï ~ *malagaï
‘to praise’ *magta-
‘to bleat’ *maïla- and *maara- possible cognate CT *maŋra- (?< *baŋra-)
‘crooked; slanted’ *maïrug
‘hat’ *makalaï see *magalaï
‘domestic animals, livestock’ *mal Wanderwort probably borrowed from Turkic; also in Iranian; ultimately probably from Arabic māl
‘hat’ *malagaï see *magalaï
‘to dig, excavate’ *malta-
‘to guard, keep watch’ *mana- possibly from PM *bana-
‘morning; tomorrow’ *managaar, *margaasï, etc
‘mist, fog’ *manan cf. *budaŋ ‘mist’
‘wild onion (and similar bulbous plants)’ *maŋgïr, *maŋgï(r)sun
‘a type of (usually female, many-headed, human-eating) demon; a large snake’ *maŋgus
‘forehead’ *maŋlaï
‘tomorrow’ *margasï see s.v. *managar
‘flesh; degree of fatness (usu. of livestock)’ *marïan ~ *maraan
‘to spy on, to peek; to stalk, approach stealthily’ *marïa-
‘to forget’ *marta- (< *umarta-)
‘bad’ *mau
‘to know’ *mede-
‘frog’ *melekei see *menekei
‘peace(ful), tranquil(ity); health, well-being; as usual’ *mendü
‘frog’ *menekei PM root may have been *mene- or *bene-
‘mole, birthmark’ *meŋge related to CT *beŋ ‘id’
‘smart, wise, talented; good marksman’ *mergen
‘like, as... as’ *metü
‘meat’ *mïkan
‘whip’ *mïlaa see *mïnaa
‘whip’ *mïnaa
‘thousand’ *mïŋgan
‘tree; wood’ *modun
‘snake’ *mogaï
‘blunt, dull’ *mogadur and *mokudag
‘resin’ *mokïn see *bokï
‘future-’ *mona
‘Mongol’ *moŋgal cf. Dag maŋŋələm ‘broomcorn millet’ < *moŋgal amun
‘horse’ *morïn
‘foliage’ *möčir cf. *nabčïn ‘leaf’, *salaa ‘branch’
‘rim of a wheel’ *möer
‘to moo, low’ *möere- may be related to the synonymous Turkic *müŋre- Ultimately an onomatopoeic
‘cartilage, gristle’ *möersün ~ *möŋgersün
‘to trace’ *möǰki- possibly in some way related to *mör ‘track, etc’
‘to crawl, creep, clamber’ *mölkü-
‘ice’ *mölsün PM root may be *möl-
‘to take off, undo’ *möltül- *möltüre- ‘to fall off, come loose’
‘real, true; the same, this very; it is so’ *mön
‘hail’ *möndür Somehow related to *mölsün ‘ice’? cf. the Shirongol word *ǰarma
‘cartilage, gristle’ *möŋgersün see *möersün
‘silver’ *möŋgün (?and *meŋgü)
‘track, trail; path, road’ *mör
‘river’ *mören Several modern forms suggest *müren
‘to touch with one’s forehead; to bow; to pray; to butt; to run into sb’ *mörgü- MMo and the Shirongol languages point at a CM *mürgü-
‘shoulder’ *möri ~ *mörü cf. *dalu ‘shoulder-blade’
‘to trace’ *möški- see *möǰki-
‘blunt’ *mukur cf. the verb *moku- (not listed); see *mokudag above
‘crooked, slanted’ *muruï ~ *murïu cf. Baoanic *maïrug ‘id’
‘to twist’ *muškï-
‘to bow, etc’ *mürgü- see *mörgü-
‘this side’ *naa- see *ïna-
‘to play’ *naad-
‘leaf, foliage’ *nabčïn cf. CM *nabaa ~ *namaa ‘foliage’
‘maternal uncle’ *nagaču
‘eight’ *naïman cf. *nayan ‘eighty’
‘harmony; joyous gathering, feast’ *naïr see *naïra-
‘to mix, combine (intr), to be in harmony’ *naïra-
‘to sneeze’ *naïta- Many languages suggest a pseudo-causative form *naïtaa-
‘lazy’ *naǰagaï see *nasïgaï
‘summer’ *naǰïr cf. the more common CM *ǰun ‘summer’
‘gentle, quiet; calm, tame; honest’ *namukan > *nomukan
‘autumn, fall’ *namur
‘sun’ *naran
‘thin, fine (not coarse)’ *narïn
‘slow, lazy’ *nasïgaï cf. the synonyms *ǰalkaï and *kašaŋ
‘(year of) age’ *nasun may be from CT *ya:š ‘id’ cf. *hon ‘(the duration of a) year’, *ǰil ‘(calendar) year’
‘to aim, to hit (a target)’ *nau- (?*no-)
‘rheum, mucus discharged by the eye’ *nauka
‘lake, pond’ *naur
‘eighty’ *nayan cf. *naïman ‘eight’
‘to open’ *nee-
‘to gather, unite, join; to mix’ *neile- derived from *nei ‘agreement, etc’, attested in the central languages
‘to weave’ *neke-
‘(garment made of) sheepskin’ *nekei
‘illegitimate child’ *nekelei
‘one’ *neken see *niken
‘to cover (with a blanket, etc)’ *nembe- ~ *nemle-
‘cover; blanket’ *nembee ~ *nemlee, *nembesün ~ *nemlesün, etc from *nembe- ‘to cover’
‘to add’ *neme-
‘to search’ *neŋǰi- ~ *negǰi-
‘name’ *nere
‘to press down, to fit into, to put sth on sth’ *nere-
‘to move, nomadize’ *neü-
‘charcoal’ *neüresün
‘to be sticky; to stick, paste, glue’ *nïa-
‘last year’ *nïdanï hon
‘fist’ *nïdurga related to CT *yïdruk ‘id’
‘spinal marrow’ *nïgursun see *nugursun
‘to rub, press, knead’ *nïku-
‘tears’ *nïlbusun cf. also the (less widespread) verb *nïlbu- ‘to spit’
‘the youngest (child of a family), baby’ *nïlka possibly in some way related to CT *ya:š ‘young’, but CM *ǰalau ‘young’ is a more likely cognate of this CT word
‘newly-born’ *nïraï
‘back’ *nïruun
‘to fly’ *nïs-/*nis-
‘snot, nasal mucus’ *nïsun perhaps related to *nii- ‘to blow one’s nose’. cf. also *nïsukaï ‘runny-nosed (person)’
‘to hide’ *nïu-
‘boy’ *nïun cf. *köbeün ‘son’
‘face’ *nïur
‘naked, bare’ *ničügün
‘to pound, crush’ *nidü-
‘eye’ *nidün PM root may have been *ni-
‘to blow one’s nose’ *nii- perhaps from *nïï-, if related to *nïsun ‘snot’ above
‘one each’ *niǰiel
‘one’ *niken ~ *neken ~ *negen ~ *nige
‘thin, flimsy, fine’ *nimgen
‘wool’ *noasun see *nogasun
‘green’ *nogaan
‘wool’ *nogasun, *noasun, *uŋgasun related to CT *yuŋ ‘id’
‘halter’ *nogta
‘sleep’ *noïr with the additional meaning ‘pancreas’
‘wet’ *noïtan perhaps related to *nor- ‘to become wet’
‘dog’ *nokaï PM root may be *no-
‘doctrine; religion; scripture, book’ *nom foreign word, ultimately Greek
‘mole; vole; zokor’ *noman Often used with *sokar ‘blind’ (which is apparently the origin of the international name zokor)
‘gentle’ *nomukan see *namukan
‘to become wet, soaked’ *nor- perhaps related to *noïtan ‘wet’
‘lord, chief’ *noyan
‘to pass’ *nögči- The central forms with -c- suggest *nögče-
‘other’ *nögee (?*nökee) Also compare the functional development of *öer- ‘self’
‘friend; spouse’ *nöker
‘to patch’ *nöke- *nöke-esün ‘patch’; cf. *hüde- ‘to patch’, *kalaasun ‘patch’
‘duck’ *nugasun
‘to be bent, to be folded’ *nugura-
‘spinal marrow’ *nugursun
‘bow’ *numun
‘to collapse, crumble’ *nura- cf. *embüre-, *yeüre-
‘camp; homeland, region’ *nutug (?) cf. *(n)uŋgasun ‘wool’
‘hole’ *nüken The QG languages mostly favour a CM *nöken
‘fat, oil’ *nümǰige
‘to take a sip, drink’ *oačï- Turkic counterpart *avurtla-
‘adze’ *oalï
‘stone heap, shamanistic cairn’ *obaa
‘family name; clan’ *obag see *omag
‘to go’ *očï- see *eči
‘to go’ *od-
‘now’ *odua see *edüe
‘to vomit, throw up’ *ogsï- cf. the more common verb *böelǰi- ‘id’
‘thought, intellect’ *oïn
‘nearby’ *oïra cf. the (near) synonymous *čaada in Baoanic, and *döte
‘penis’ *oǰagaï cf. *kïrǰaŋ
‘to have sexual intercourse’ *oka- (?*hoka-)
‘daughter, girl’ *okïn see *ökin
‘to find; to get, obtain’ *ol-
‘many’ *olan
‘bellyband (of a horse)’ *olaŋ perhaps related to CT *kolan (?*kolaŋ) ‘saddle-girth’
‘hemp’ *olusun
‘clan, family; family name’ *omag ~ *obag
‘courage; arrogance, haughtiness’ *omag
‘boat; trough’ *oŋgača
‘notch on an arrow’ *onï/*ona (?*honï) cf. also *onubčï (?) ‘knife for making notches in arrows’
‘track, trace, footprint, fingerprint’ *ora
‘to enter’ *ora-
‘wild, untamed, undomesticated’ *oraa (?*orïa) cf. *emlig
‘evening; late’ *oraï
‘place, spot; seat; throne; bed; country’ *oran cf. CT *orun ‘place’
‘to throw, cast away; to abandon, release; to put’ *orkï- cf. *soŋgu- which is spelled so’onggu- in SH
‘to sew’ *oya-
‘bosom’ *öber, *öbür see *ebür
‘southern slope’ *öbür see *ebür
‘few’ *öčeen see *čöen
‘yesterday’ *öčügedür (< *öčigen üdür)
‘little, small’ *öčüken see *üčüken
‘thick, dense’ *ödken may go back to a PM *öčken (*öǰken)
‘kind of bread or cake’ *ödme (and *ödmeg) cf. CT *etmek ‘bread’, which also has variant forms *ekmek and *epmek which were borrowed by Moghol
‘day’ *ödür see *üdür
‘upwards, upstream; above’ *öede
‘self’ *öer-
‘other, different’ *öere possibly related to CT *özge ‘other’
‘other’ *öermiče
‘to give’ *ög-
‘daughter, girl’ *ökin (~ *okïn)
‘female of carnivorous animals; she-dog’ *ölegčin
‘cradle’ *ölegei
‘to be hungry’ *öles-
‘to hang’ *örgü- see elgü-
‘instep’ *ölmei
‘trousers’ *ömüdün see *emüdün
‘egg’ *ömdegen (?< *emdegen or *emdügen)
‘egg’ *öndege see *ömdegen
‘high’ *öndür (?*höndür) cf. *üdür ‘day’
‘orphan(ed)’ *önečin
‘colour; appearance’ *öŋge related to CT *öŋ ‘colour’
‘to pass by’ *öŋgere-
‘dawn’ *ör often used with *čaï- ‘to become white’ or *gei- ‘to become bright’
‘(pit of the) stomach’ *öre
‘diaphragm’ *öreče probably derived from *öre
‘type of hobble’ *öreele and *öreesün ‘half (one of a pair)’
‘skylight’ *örege see *erüke
‘skin on boiled milk’ *öreme
‘broad, wide, vast’ *örgen
‘thorn’ *örgeesün, *örgesün
‘to lift’ *örgü- see ergü-
‘debt’ *öri
‘kind of coarse fabric’ *örmege related to CT *hö(:)r-mek from the verb *hö(:)r- ‘to plait’
‘skylight, smoke-hole (of a yurt)’ *örüke
‘to grow’ *ös-
‘to kick’ *öskel- (?*hisköl-)
‘heel’ *ösegei cf. *ǰauǰaï
‘dung’ *öteg possibly related to Turkic *ötük
‘old, old man’ *ötege (and *ötegü) also used as an Ersatzwort for ‘bear’, usually in the form *ötege
‘to get old, to age’ *ötel- cf. *ötege/*ötegü
‘feed, fodder’ *öyee
‘to milk’ *saa-
‘name of several colours of horses’ coats (usu. shades of grey)’ *saaral
‘buttocks, hindquarters; names for types of leather’ *saarï related to CT *sagïr or *sagrï
‘magpie’ *saaǰagaï see *saǰagaï
‘vessel, household container; utensil’ *saba
‘to beat’ *saba-
‘to sprinkle, scatter, shed’ *saču- related to CT *sač- ‘id’
‘to be sprinkled, scattered, shed’ *sačura- cf. also CT *sačra-
‘buckwheat’ *sagad ~ *sagadaï ~ *sagag
‘beautiful, good-looking’ *saïkan
‘good’ *saïn
‘ox; billy-goat’ *saïnug see *seinüg
‘beard’ *sakal related to CT *sakal ‘id’
‘to wait; to protect; to guard, keep watch’ *sakï- perhaps related to CT *sa:k- ‘to think’ cf. *mana-
‘raft’ *sal related to CT *sa:l ‘id’
‘to loosen; to be divided; to part’ *sal-
‘branch; space between fingers’ *salaa
‘wind’ *salkïn
‘comb’ *sam
‘to comb’ *samla-
‘to throw up in the air and scatter; to ladle; to stir’ *samur- reminiscent of CT *savru- ‘to winnow’
‘to think’ *sana- cf. *bodo-
‘hair on the temples’ *sančïg
‘bird of prey’ [several species]. *sar Rather poorly attested
‘moon; month’ *sara
‘garlic’ *sarïmsag related to CT *sarïmsak ‘id’
‘membrane, thin skin’ *sarïsun
‘Muslim’ *sarta- foreign word related to Turkic *sart
‘to sit (down); to settle down, to live’ *sau-
‘bucket, pail’ *saulga cf. Turkic *sagu ‘bucket’ (from *sag- ‘to milk’) possibly related to *saa- ‘to milk’
‘magpie’ *saǰagaï probably related to CT *sagïzgan ‘id’
‘intelligent, bright’ *sečen
‘to poke, prod, prick, pierce’ *seči-
‘to think’ *sedki-
‘heart (fig), mind, thought’ *sedkil
‘backbone, spinal column’ *seer perhaps related to CT *seŋir
‘to pull out, to weed’ *sei-
‘to carve, engrave’ *seil-
‘(kind of) ovid or bovid’ *seinüg ~ *saïnug cf. *serke and *teke
‘sword’ *seleme
‘iron’ *sələ perhaps an early loanword from Tungusic in view of Tungusic *sələ ‘iron’
*sem-ken ‘silent’, (instrumental); *sem-eer ‘silently, secretly, stealthily’ *sem, (diminutive)
‘fat (around the intestines)’ *semeǰin possibly related to CT *semiz ‘fat (adjective)’
‘to wake up, be awake’ *seri- cf. CT *sez- ‘to notice, be aware of’ (? and *sere- ‘to notice, feel’)
‘cool’ *seriün
‘castrated billy-goat’ *serke
‘to break, tear, crack open (intr)’ *setel-
‘to break, tear, crack open (intr)’ *setere-
‘shadow’ *seüder
‘hip, hipbone’ *seüǰi
‘tail; end’ *seül
‘sigh’ *seüresün
‘ankle’ *sïa see *sïgaï
‘to plaster; to smear on’ *sïba-
‘mud, loam’ *sïbar
‘bird’ *sïbaun cf. *bïldïur
‘to be squeezed out, to flow out, to lose fluid, to be emptied’ *sïbkara- apparently originally an intransitive form of *sïbka- ‘to remove the fluid from sth’
‘whip’ *sïčua cf. also Manchu šusiha cf. *mïnaa
‘anklebone; bone used in games’ *sïgaï ~ *sïa
‘to peep at, spy on; to gaze at, to stare’ *sïgaï- (~ *sïgaa-)
‘leg’ *sïïra
‘to squeeze, press, pinch’ *sïka- related to CT *sïk- ‘id’
‘straight (literally); upright, honest’ *sïluun
‘sheep tick’ *sïlǰa
‘to tuck up, roll up’ *sïmalï- (?*sïmal-)
‘to become blunt, calm, weak’ *sïmtara-
‘mosquito’ *sïmuul reminiscent of CM *simi- ‘to suck’
‘wedge; temple of the head; promontory’ *sïnaa
‘spoon, ladle, scoop’ *sïnaga
‘tendon’ *sïndasun
‘yellow’ *sïra
‘to roast’ *sïra-
‘earth, ground, soil, dust’ *sïrau/*sïrua/*sïroï
‘certain horse colour, isabella, etc’ *sïrga cf. *sïra ‘yellow’
‘ant’ *sïrgolǰïn
‘to penetrate; to get through; to insert’ *sïrgu-
‘to stitch (usually the sole of a shoe)’ *sïrï-
‘wound’ *sïrka
‘pointed stick; spit’ *sïro
‘to catch fire, to burn (intr.)’ *sïta- *sïtaa- ‘to light (a fire), to burn, set fire to’
‘storm’ *sïurgan
‘sweat on the palms or feet’ *siber (?*siberi)
‘awl’ *sibüge (?*sibege)
‘to sew, stitch, baste’ *side-
‘tooth’ *sidün perhaps a collective form from a PM root *si-
‘to urinate’ *sie- see *siesün ‘urine’
‘urine’ *siesün
‘shank, shin’ *silbi
‘lynx’ *sileü(l)sün
‘to shake, tremble’ *silgüd-
‘nape of the neck’ *sili
‘meat broth; soup’ *silön (?)
‘saliva; slobbering’ *silükei
‘to salivate’ *silüsün, and possibly to *silön. Cf. also MMo SH šilemelce- H140
‘saliva’ *silüsün
‘juice’ *sime(n) perhaps related to CM *simi- ‘to suck’
‘to suck’ *simi-
‘to melt’ *simtere- see *sïmtara-
‘new’ *sini (?~ *sine)
‘to be digested’, and ‘(of the sun) to set’ *siŋge- cf. CT *siŋ-
‘thin, watery’ *siŋgen probably from *siŋge-
‘tendon, muscle’ *sirbüsün (?*sirbösün)
‘table’ *siree
‘coarse’ *sirüün
‘felt’ *sisegei see *isegei
‘to strain, filter; to skim off; to scoop out of a fluid’ *siü-
‘chisel’ *siüči perhaps in some way related to CM *sibege ‘awl’?
‘dew’ *siüderi(n)
‘broom; fine-toothed comb’ *siür
‘to sweep’ *siür-
‘juice; portion of meat allocated to a certain person’ *siüsün
‘to be startled’ *sočï-
‘doe, hind’ *sogaa reminiscent of CT *sïgun ‘deer’
‘to be drunk’ *sogta-
‘blind (person)’ *sokar
‘left, left hand side’ *solagaï related to CT *so:l ‘left’, *so:l-ak ‘left-handed (person)’ cf. *ǰeün ‘left’
‘rainbow’ *solaŋga
‘gadfly, horsefly’ *sona
‘to hear’ *sonas- cf. *čïŋla- ‘to listen’
‘news; new, newsworthy, interesting’ *sonïn
‘to mock; to imitate’ *sonǰï-
‘onion’ *soŋgïna The CM word was probably borrowed from a CT diminutive *sogan-kïña from *sogan ‘onion’
‘to choose, select, elect’ *soŋgu- (~ *suŋgu-) cf. CM *ïlga-
‘cane, walking-stick’ *sorbï
‘to suck’ *sora- related to CT *so:r- ‘id’ cf. *simi-, *köke-
‘edible flowers of wild leek’ and other bulbous plants. *sorïsun
‘eyelash’ *sormusun cf. *hanï-ska
‘stalk, shoot; fang, tusk’ *soyaa
‘small handspan, the space between thumb and index finger’ *söem
‘to scold, curse, blame’ *sögee- probably related to CT *sö:k- ‘to scold’ cf. *karïa-
‘to kneel’ *söged- reminiscent of Old Turkic sök- ‘id’
‘knee’ *ebüdüg
‘earring’ *söike
‘gall bladder; bile’ *sölsün (~ *čölsün)
‘to go out (fire)’ *söne- related to CT *sö:n- ‘id’
‘night’ *söni
‘gall bladder’ *sösün see *sölsün
‘ditch, canal’ *subag probably related to CT *suba- ‘to water’, from *sub ‘water’
‘barren (of livestock)’ *subaï cf. *kïsuraŋ
‘pearl’ *subud see *subusun
‘stupa, pagoda’ *suburgan from Sogdian, via Turkic
‘pearl’ *subusun perhaps from a PM root *subu-
‘to unravel, undo, take apart, to make gaps’ *sučal-
‘vein, etc’ *sudal see *sudasun
‘blood vessel, vein, artery’ *sudasun
‘to pull out a long thin object, to unsheath’ *sugul- perhaps with a variant *ǰugul-
‘loose, lax; empty’ *sula
‘bag’ *sumal
‘arrow, bullet’ *sumun
‘to ride on a horse with a passenger or luggage in front or behind’ *sundula- cf. *deür-
‘to stretch, extend (intr)’ *sun(u)- CT *su:n- ‘to stretch, extend’ *sunïa- ‘to stretch oneself’, *suŋga- ‘to stretch, extend (tr)’
‘strip of leather, leather strap’ *sur
‘to learn’ *sur-
‘to ask’ *sura- may be related to CT *sɔr-
‘armpit’ *suu (~ *sugu)
‘milk’ *sü(n) ~ *üsün
‘small hole, eye of a needle’ *sübe
‘flank, side of the chest’ *sübee
‘faith, belief’ *süǰig from CT *süzüg ‘pure’, from the verb *süz- ‘to filter’
‘axe’ *süke
‘temple; Buddha effigy’ *süme
‘soul’ *sünesün
‘grandeur, majesty, might, power’ *sür
‘you (plural and/or polite)’ *ta
‘to guess; to suppose’ *taa- probably related to CT *tap- ‘to find’
‘to like, to love; to caress’ *taala- related to CT *tapla- ‘to be pleased’
‘to put’ *tabï- see talbï-
‘fifty’ *tabïn
‘five’ *tabun cf. *modun ‘wood’ for a similar case
‘to make an offering, to sacrifice’ *taï- related to CT *tap- ‘to worship’, which indicates a PM form *tahï- < *tapï- cf. the unrelated but semantically overlapping *takï-
‘to undo, untie, unwrap’ *taïl-
‘to put’ *talbï- The Monguor languages continue to distinguish the two
‘horseshoe’ *taka
‘to serve; to worship, to make an offering’ *takï- cf. *taï-
‘chicken’ *takïa
‘to put, lay down; to release, let go of’ *talbï-
‘flour; roasted flour; bread’ *talkan related to CT *talkan
‘to smash, to rip, to tear to pieces’ *tamtul- *tamtura- ‘to be smashed, torn, ripped’
‘to rub; ‘to twist or spin thread or rope’ *tamu- and *tomu- (*toma-)
‘large pearl’ *tana cf. *subud ‘pearl’
‘to know, to recognize’ *tanï-
‘palate’ *taŋlaï the PM root may have been *taŋ-
‘sour milk, clabbered milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, etc’ *tarag
‘mange; bald’ *taragaï or *tarakaï apparently related to CT *taz ‘bald’
‘marmot’ *tarbagan the PM ‘root’ may have been *tarba-
‘fat (adj)’ *targun
‘to sow, plant’ *tarï- related to CT *tarï- ‘id’
‘crop; grain, cereal; agricultural field’ *tarïan related to CT *tarïg ‘wheat’
‘brain’ *tarïkï cf. *heki(n)
‘to scatter, spread, disperse’ *tarka-
‘strip of leather, thong’ *tasma
‘to break (intr)’ *tasura-
‘to pull’ *tata- in many languages also ‘to grind, mill’, or ‘to smoke’
‘to drive (usu. animals)’ *tau-
‘hare’ *taulaɪ
‘jackdaw’ *taun and/or ?*tagan/*tagun related to the synonymous CT *taŋan
‘stick, walking cane’ *tayag derived from the CT verb *taya- ‘to support’ cf. *sorbï
‘shuttlecock’ *tebeg (?*tebüg) apparently borrowed from CT *tepük, derived from *tep- ‘to kick’
‘large needle’ *tebene (?*temene) related to CT *temen ‘id’
‘to embrace’ *teberi-
‘plate, dish’ *tebsi from Chinese diézi, perhaps via Turkic *tevsi
‘those’ *tede see *tere
‘axle’ *teeli see *teŋgeli(g)
‘mill’ *teermen related to CT *tegirmen ‘id’ in the QG languages *termen
‘level, even’ *tegsi cf. *tübsin
‘to end (intr)’ *tegüs-
‘such, that kind of’ *teimü
‘like that, so’ *tein cf. *teimü above
‘to do that way’ *teingi- < *tein ki- from the pronominal root *te-, cf. also *tere ‘that’, *tende ‘there’
‘to feed, nourish’ *teǰie-
‘billy-goat’ *teke related to CT *teke ‘id’ cf. *ukuna and *serke
‘to struggle, to strive for, to exert oneself, to compete’ *temeče-
‘camel’ *temeen related to CT *teve ‘id’
‘to gather, pick up’ *temgü-
‘to feel, grope’ *temtel-, *temtere-
‘iron’ *temür related to CT *temir ‘id’
‘there’ *tende The same stem as *tein ‘like that’, *tere ‘that’, etc
‘axle’ *teŋgeli(g)
‘sky, weather; heaven; god’ *teŋgeri related to CT *teŋri ‘id’ in Shirongol ‘sky’
‘that; s/he, it’ *tere (and *te?)
‘cart’ *tergen
‘head’ *teriün with many derived meanings such as ‘chief’ and ‘beginning’
‘to gather, pick up’ (e.g. dried dung or firewood) *teü- cf. *temgü- ‘id’
‘number, figure’ *toa(n)
‘to count’ *toala- from *toa(n) ‘number’ above
‘earth; dust, dust cloud, speck of dust’ *toarag and *tobarag from Turkic word *toprak ‘earth’ cf. *toasun ‘dust’
‘to turn around; to circle; to enclose’ *toarï-
‘dust’ *toasun perhaps related to Turkic *tog ‘id’ or *topa ‘id’
‘button’ *tobčï
‘pot, pan, cauldron’ *togaan cf. *kaïsun
‘crane (the bird)’ *togaraun (?*toguraun)
‘to be steady; to stand still, to stop; to take shape’ *togta-
‘elbow’ *tokaï
‘to saddle, to cover with sth’ *toku- (?*toka-)
‘saddle-pad, sweat-cloth’ *tokum (?*tokam) in some QG languages ‘felt’. derived from *toku-
‘head’ *tolagaï see *hekin, *teriün ‘head’
‘to spin thread, etc’ *toma- see *tamu-
‘net’ *tor related to CT *tor (?*to:r) ‘id’
‘silk’ *torga(n) CT *torku ‘id’
‘fat, oil, butter’ *tosun the PM root may have been *to-
‘Tibetan’ *töbed
‘handspan’ *töe
‘cauterisation, moxibustion’ *töene related to CT *tögün, originally ‘brand’, and *tögne- ‘to brand’ related verb *töene-
‘to get lost’ *töeri- cf. *ǰabka-
‘circle or sphere; round, circular, spherical’ *tögerig
‘to be born or to give birth’ *töre- cf. CT *törü-
‘calf’ *tugul probably related to CT *toklï ‘id’
‘to buck; to kick with the hind legs’ *tuïla-
‘to support’ *tul-
‘support, pillar, column’ *tulga
‘animal skin used as a container, leather bag’ *tulum cf. CT *tulum
‘to be or become emaciated’ *tur-
‘turnip’ *turma probably borrowed separate from CT *turma (of IE origin) by MMo and QG languages
‘hoof’ *turuun
‘assistance; benefit, profit’ *tusa cf. CT *tusa ‘id’
‘straight, upright, vertical; opposite’ *tuš (> *tus) from CT *tuš ‘equal; opposite’
‘rice’ *tuturgan related to CT *tuturkan ‘id’
‘to land, swoop down’ *tuu-
‘tin; lead’ *tuulga
‘hoof’ *tuura(ï) see sv turuʊn
‘flat, level, smooth; peaceful, quiet’ *tübsin
‘(unwanted) fire, steppe fire’ *tüimer
‘to light, set fire to, burn’ *tüle- (*tüli-)
‘firewood’ *tülien derived from *tüle- (*tüli-)
‘to push’ *tülki-
‘key’ *tülkiür derived from *tülki- ‘to push’
‘to drag; to push’ (not listed). *türi-
‘ten thousand; multitude’ *tümen Widely occurring Eurasian word related to CT *tümen ‘id’
‘bootleg’ *türei
‘fast, quick’ *türgen
‘at first’ *türüün see s.v. *teriün
‘to sprinkle, to pour, to cast (metal)’ *tüsür- cf. *čïdku-, *ki-
‘raw’ *tüükei ~ *tüükü
‘feeding horn’ *ubuǰï see *ugǰï
‘reason; circumstance; occasion’ *učïr
‘to meet’ *učïra- the PM form may be *utïra-
‘to be late’ *uda-
‘to scoop up’ *udku-
‘to lead, guide’ *udurïd- and *udurï- apparently related to CT *uduz-, a caus. formation of *ud- ‘to follow’
‘to wash’ *ugïa- (> *ugaa-)
‘feeding horn, feeding bottle’ *ugǰï, *ubuǰï
‘ibex, mountain goat’ *ugulǰa also used for ornaments in the shape of stylized spiralling horns
‘to throw’ *ugur- (?)
‘to cry’ *uïla-
‘billy-goat’ *ukana
‘sole of the foot (or shoe)’ *ula related to CT *ul (?*hul)
‘people; state, country’ *ulus related to CT *uluš ‘id’
‘to forget’ *umarta- see *marta-
‘drink, beverage’ *umdaan cf. *umdaas- ‘to be thirsty’
‘to be thirsty’ *umdaas- derived from *umdaan
‘yak hybrid’ *umsu (?*ümsü) cf. *kaïnag ‘yak’
‘to fall, to come down’ *una- cf. *bau- ‘to descend’
‘foal, colt’ *unagan
‘to sleep’ *unta-
‘to lie down; to sleep’ *untara-
‘wool’ *uŋgasun see *nogasun
‘to read’ *uŋsï- ~ *umsï-
‘master, craftsman; skill; skillful’ *uran related to CT *u:z ‘id’
‘to come up, appear (usu. of celestial bodies); to grow, sprout’ *urgu-
‘to call; to invite’ *urï-
‘before, earlier’ *urïda *urïdu ‘former, previous; front; south’. cf. *urïǰï
‘the day before yesterday’ *urïǰï üdür
‘the year before last’ *urïǰï hɔn
‘three days ago’ *urïǰïïn urïǰï üdür
‘long’ *urtu (~ *utu ~ *utur)
‘relatives by marriage’ *urug CT *urug, *urug tarïg
‘forward’ *urugsï
‘to race (horses)’ *uruldu-
‘to flow’ *urus-
‘water’ *usun perhaps derived from a root *u-
‘to drink’ *uu- cf. *ugǰï ‘feeding bottle’ and *oačï- ‘to drink’
‘back; sacrum; crotch, hindquarters, rump’ *uuča corresponds to CT *u:ča
‘to throw’ *uur- (?) see *ugur-
‘biestings, colostrum’ *uurag related to CT *aguz ‘id’
‘urga, pole with a noose at the end used for catching horses’ *uurga (?urga) Not to be confused with *huraka ‘lasso, snare’
‘winter’ *übül (?*ebül)
‘little, small’ *üčüken (?*öčüken) cf. also *baga ‘small’
‘noon, midday’ *üde
‘(in the) evening, (at) night’ *üdesi
‘(in the) evening, (at) night’ *üdesileŋ cf. also *ene üdesileŋ ‘tonight’
‘day’ *üdür/*ödür
‘word; speech’ *üge
‘there is not; without; not’ *ügei (?*ügüi) in some languages also ‘poor’
‘to pull out, tear out’ *ügtee- cf. *sei-
‘work, deed, affair’ *üile
‘birchbark’ *üisün (?*uïsun, ?*uïlsun)
‘to see’ *üǰe-
‘letter, character; writing’ *üǰüg ~ *üsüg elated to CT *üžük, itself a loanword from an unknown source
‘tip, end’ *üǰüür see *hüǰüür
‘to die’ *ükü-
‘sword’ *üldü see *ildü
‘story, tale; example; proverb’ *üliger
‘not’ *üle, *ülü cf. the other negative particles *bisi, *bütegei, *ese, *ügüi
‘root’ *ündesün cf. *hïǰaur ~ *huǰaur ‘id’
‘price’ *üne
‘true’ *ünen
‘cow’ *ünien compare CT *in(g)ek ‘cow’
‘kid (goat)’ *ünügün
‘young stallion (of three, four, or five years)’ *ürie
‘milk’ *üsün see *süü
‘threshing floor’ *ütergen ~ *ütürme perhaps a corruption of Turkic *örtgün ‘id’?
‘joint; generation’ *üye
‘feed, fodder’ *üyee
‘what; what kind of’ *yaan and *yaun cf. *yama, *yamar
‘to do what/how’ (interrogative verb). *yaakï- apparently from *yaan + *ki-. see *yaan and *yaun
‘to be in a hurry’ *yaara-
‘to go; to walk’ *yabu-
‘to be unable’ *yada-
‘to be(come) tired’ *yadara- apparently an inchoative formation to *yada-
‘what; something; thing’ *yama
‘what, what kind of’ *yamar
‘ulcer, sore; syphilis’ *yara in MMo and Dag ‘wound’
‘bone(s)’ *yasun from a PM root *ya-
‘something, thing’ *yauma cf. *yama ‘id’
‘what’ *yaun see s.v. *yaan
‘large, big, great’ *yeke (?)
‘ninety’ *yeren
‘nine’ *yesün < *yersün
‘to scoop or ladle out and transfer into another container; transfuse, transplant, etc’ *yeü- (?*yüü-)
‘to move, shift (tr.)’ *yeüdke-
‘custom, habit, rule’ *yosun

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Nugteren, Hans. 2011. Mongolic Phonology and the Qinghai-Gansu Languages. Utrecht: LOT. ISBN: 978-94-6093-070-6
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