This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *h₃ebhi.



  1. (with locative) around, about
  2. (with locative) concerning
  3. (with accusative) against, on

Usage notesEdit

Because of the law of open syllables, the final -b was often dropped. It was retained when the next word began with a vowel or with l or r. When combined with a word that began with v, it was also retained, but the v was dropped.


  • East Slavic:
    • Belarusian: аб ‎(ab)
    • Russian: о ‎(o), об ‎(ob), обо ‎(obo)
    • Ukrainian: об ‎(ob)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic: о ‎(o), об ‎(ob), объ ‎(obŭ)
    • Bulgarian: о ‎(o)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic: о
      Latin: o, ob (regional)
    • Slovene: o, ob
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: o, ob
    • Polish: o
    • Slovak: o
    • Sorbian: