Reconstruction:Proto-Celtic/-ākos

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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-CelticEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos. Cognate with Latin -ācus, -īcus, Ancient Greek -ακός (-akós), -ικός (-ikós), Proto-Germanic *-agaz, Proto-Slavic *-ъkъ, Sanskrit -कस (-kasa), -शस (-śasa).

SuffixEdit

*-ākos

  1. Forms adjectives from nouns and adjectives with the sense of "involved with, belonging to, having".
InflectionEdit
O/ā-stem
masculine singular dual plural
nominative *-ākos *-ākou *-ākoi
vocative *-āke *-ākou *-ākūs
accusative *-ākom *-ākou *-ākoms
genitive *-ākī *-ākous *-ākom
dative *-ākūi *-ākobom *-ākobos
instrumental *-ākū *-ākobim *-ākobis
feminine singular dual plural
nominative *-ākā *-ākai *-ākās
vocative *-ākā *-ākai *-ākās
accusative *-ākam *-ākai *-ākams
genitive *-ākās *-ākous *-ākom
dative *-ākai *-ākābom *-ākābos
instrumental *? *-ākābim *-ākābis
neuter singular dual plural
nominative *-ākom *-ākou *-ākā
vocative *-ākom *-ākou *-ākā
accusative *-ākom *-ākou *-ākā
genitive *-ākī *-ākous *-ākom
dative *-ākūi *-ākobom *-ākobos
instrumental *-ākū *-ākobim *-ākobis
Derived termsEdit


DescendantsEdit
  • Brythonic: *-ọg
    • Old Breton: -oc
    • Old Cornish: -oc
      • Middle Cornish: -ec
    • Old Welsh: -auc
    • Old Irish: -óc
  • Old Irish: -ach

Etymology 2Edit

Substantivisation of the above adjective suffix. Functionally cognate with Proto-Slavic *-akъ.

SuffixEdit

*-ākos m

  1. Forms nouns indicating a person involved with, belonging to or having.
InflectionEdit
Masculine o-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *-ākos *-ākou *-ākoi
vocative *-āke *-ākou *-ākūs
accusative *-ākom *-ākou *-ākoms
genitive *-ākī *-ākous *-ākom
dative *-ākūi *-ākobom *-ākobos
instrumental *-ākū *-ākobim *-ākobis
Derived termsEdit