See also: ach, ACH, and ách

ChuukeseEdit

SuffixEdit

-ach

  1. (added to possessive nouns) our (inclusive)

Related termsEdit



IrishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-ākos, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂ + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos; compare Welsh -og. Doublet of -óg.

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

-ach m

  1. Forms nouns from other nouns and adjectives with the sense of ‘person or thing connected or involved with, belonging to, having’.
    Éire (Ireland) + ‎-ach → ‎Éireannach (Irish (person))
    Sasana (England) + ‎-ach → ‎Sasanach (English (person))
  2. Forms adjectives from other nouns and adjectives with the sense of ‘connected or involved with, belonging to, having’.
    bunús (basis) + ‎-ach → ‎bunúsach (basic)
    fearg (anger) + ‎-ach → ‎feargach (angry)
    Éire (Ireland) + ‎-ach → ‎Éireannach (Irish)
    Sasana (England) + ‎-ach → ‎Sasanach (English)
DeclensionEdit

For nouns:

For adjectives:

Derived termsEdit


Etymology 2Edit

From Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-Vkos (V standing for any vowel), the genitive singular ending of certain nouns ending in *-Vxs.

SuffixEdit

-ach

  1. forms the genitive singular of some fifth-declension nouns

Middle IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-ākos, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos. Doublet of -óc.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ach

  1. Forms adjectives meaning "related to, having, characterised by, prone to".
  2. Forms nouns meaning "person or thing connected or involved with, belonging to, having".

Usage notesEdit

After a palatalised consonant, the suffix becomes -ech.

Derived termsEdit


DescendantsEdit

  • Irish: -ach
  • Manx: -agh
  • Scottish Gaelic: -ach

Middle WelshEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Brythonic *-ox, with the vowel altered by influence from -af.

SuffixEdit

-ach

  1. forms a comparative adjective

Derived termsEdit



Old IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *-ākos, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos. Doublet of -óc.

Compare Latin -ācus, -icus.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ach

  1. Forms adjectives meaning "related to, having, characterised by, prone to".
  2. Forms nouns meaning "person or thing connected or involved with, belonging to, having".

Usage notesEdit

After a palatalised consonant, the suffix becomes -ech.

InflectionEdit

Adjective:

o/ā-stem
Singular Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -ach -ach -ach
Vocative -aig*
-ach**
Accusative -ach -aig
Genitive -aig -aige -aig
Dative -uch -aig -uch
Plural Masculine Feminine/neuter
Nominative -aig -acha
Vocative -achu
-acha
Accusative -achu
-acha
Genitive -ach
Dative -achaib
Notes *modifying a noun whose vocative is different from its nominative

**modifying a noun whose vocative is identical to its nominative
† not when substantivized

Noun:

Masculine o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -ach -achL -aigL
Vocative -aig -achL -achuH
Accusative -achN -achL -achuH
Genitive -aigL -ach -achN
Dative -uchL -achaib -achaib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Derived termsEdit


DescendantsEdit

Further readingEdit


Scottish GaelicEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-ākos, from Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂kos, *-eh₂ḱos, from a-stem suffix *-eh₂- + adjectival suffix *-kos, *-ḱos; compare Welsh -og. Doublet of -ag.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ach (plural -aich or -aichean)

  1. Forming nouns from nouns and adjectives with the sense of ‘person or thing connected or involved with, belonging to, having’.

Derived termsEdit



WelshEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Welsh -ach, from Proto-Brythonic *-ox, with the vowel altered by influence from -af.

SuffixEdit

-ach

  1. Forms a comparative adjective.
    ifanc (young) + ‎-ach → ‎ifancach (younger)
    pwysig (important) + ‎-ach → ‎pwysicach (more important)
    tlawd (poor) + ‎-ach → ‎tlotach (poorer)

Usage notesEdit

Triggers fortition of the final consonant of the adjectival stem.

Etymology 2Edit

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

-ach

  1. pejorative suffix
    cor (dwarf) + ‎-ach → ‎corrach (dwarf, gnome)
    cawl (soup) + ‎-ach → ‎cawlach (mess, hotchpotch)
    dillad (clothes) + ‎-ach → ‎dilladach (old clothes, worthless clothing)

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

-ach f

  1. suffix forming abstract nouns and some verbnouns
    cyfrin (privy, cryptic) + ‎-ach → ‎cyfrinach (secret)
    cyfaill (friend) + ‎-ach → ‎cyfeillach (fellowship, companionship)
    clinc (clink, tinkle) + ‎tarddu (emerge, erupt) + ‎-ach → ‎clindarddarch (crackling; to crackle)

Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present) , “-ach”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies