Basque

edit

Etymology 1

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. Ergative plural suffix.
    Txakurrek katuak jan dituzte.The dogs have eaten the cats.
Declension
edit
Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -(e)k -ak -ek
dative -(r)i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -(r)en -aren -en -on
comitative -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -(e)z -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -(r)engan -arengan -engan -ongan
inanim. -(e)tan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako -otako
allative anim. -(r)engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara -otara
terminative anim. -(r)enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -(r)enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -(r)enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -(r)engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etik -otik
partitive -(r)ik
prolative -tzat

Etymology 2

edit

From -e- (epenthetic vowel) +‎ -k (ergative suffix).

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. Allomorphic post-consonantal form of -k (ergative indefinite suffix)
Declension
edit
Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -(e)k -ak -ek
dative -(r)i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -(r)en -aren -en -on
comitative -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -(e)z -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -(r)engan -arengan -engan -ongan
inanim. -(e)tan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako -otako
allative anim. -(r)engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara -otara
terminative anim. -(r)enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -(r)enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -(r)enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -(r)engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etik -otik
partitive -(r)ik
prolative -tzat

Breton

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. Adjectival suffix
    douar (earth) + ‎-ek → ‎douarek (earthy, earthly)
    dour (water) + ‎-ek → ‎dourek (watery, humid)
    houarn (iron) + ‎-ek → ‎houarnek (ferrous)

Derived terms

edit
edit

Cornish

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Celtic *-ākos.

Suffix 1

edit

-ek

  1. Adjectival suffix
    mor (sea) + ‎-ek → ‎morek (maritime)
    spern (thorn bushes) + ‎-ek → ‎spernek (thorny)
    Frynk (France) + ‎-ek → ‎frynkek (French)

Suffix 2

edit

-ek

  1. Forms masculine nouns
    kroghen (skin) + ‎-ek → ‎kronek (toad)
    dren (thorn) + ‎-ek → ‎drenek (spurdog)

Derived terms

edit

Czech

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъkъ.

Suffix

edit

-ek m inan or m anim (noun-forming suffix)

  1. forms masculine diminutive nouns
    stůl + ‎-ek → ‎stolek

Declension

edit

inanimate:

animate:

Derived terms

edit

Further reading

edit
  • -ek in Slovník afixů užívaných v češtině, 2017

Hungarian

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From -e- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (plural suffix).

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    kert (garden) + ‎-ek → ‎kertek (gardens)
Usage notes
edit
  • (plural suffix) Variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) + ‎-k → ‎k (women)
    fa (tree) + ‎-k → ‎k (trees)
    csésze (cup) + ‎-k → ‎csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) + ‎-ak → ‎házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) + ‎-ok → ‎padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) + ‎-ek → ‎kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) + ‎-ek → ‎könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) + ‎-ök → ‎körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian: három könyv (three books), néhány óra múlva (in a few hours’ time). There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok (the Three Magi), mindenszentek (All Saints), and certain archaic phrases with összes (all) and minden (every) (see their Usage notes).
  • The regular plural suffix for back-vowel adjectives is -ak, for example okosak (smart/clever ones). On the other hand, ethnonyms take -ok (e.g. olaszok (Italians), see the back-vowel terms in their category), as well as some other adjectives, including privative (“…-less”) ones (formed with -talan, -atlan, or -tlan). Rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek, for example zöldek (green ones), except for demonyms (see rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. játékosok (players, noun) and játékosak (playful, adjective as part of a plural predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős: ismerősök (acquaintances, noun) and ismerősek (familiar, adjective as part of a plural predicate).

Etymology 2

edit

From -e- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (personal suffix).

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. (personal suffix) Forms the first-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, indefinite conjugation).
    kér (to ask, request) + ‎-ek → ‎kérek (I ask, I am asking)
    Engedélyt kérek a távozásra.I request permission to leave.
Usage notes
edit
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -ok is added to back-vowel verbs
    -ek is added to unrounded front-vowel verbs
    -ök is added to rounded front-vowel verbs
    -om may be added to back-vowel -ik verbs
    -em may be added to unrounded front-vowel -ik verbs
    -öm may be added to rounded front-vowel -ik verbs

See also

edit

Mokilese

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. Used to form intransitive verbs

Usage notes

edit

This suffix becomes -iek after a vowel.

Northern Kurdish

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek (Arabic spelling ـەک)

  1. (affixed to words ending in a consonant) Alternative form of -yek (a, an (indefinite article))

Northern Ohlone

edit

Alternative forms

edit
  • -k (before vowels)

Etymology

edit

Compare Southern Ohlone kan-.

Pronoun

edit

-ek

  1. I (first-person, singular, subject enclitic pronoun)

See also

edit

References

edit

María de los Angeles Colós, José Guzman, and John Peabody Harrington (1930s) Chochenyo Field Notes (Survey of California and Other Indian Langauges)‎[1], Unpublished

Polish

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъkъ.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ɛk/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Rhymes: -ɛk
  • Syllabification: ek

Suffix

edit

-ek m

  1. masculine diminutive noun suffix
    dół + ‎-ek → ‎dołek
    Jarosław + ‎-ek → ‎Jarek

Declension

edit

Masculine personal:

Note: The masculine personal nominative plural ending -ki is rare and mostly limited to depreciative forms or humorous expressions such as bawidamek, gagatek, złodziejaszek, hultajek, psotniczek, łobuziaczek.

Masculine animate:

Masculine inanimate:

Derived terms

edit

See also

edit
  • (forming nicknames)

Further reading

edit
  • -ek in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek (Cyrillic spelling -ек)

  1. Suffix appended to the present stem of verbs or nouns to form an adjective denoting a feature or a dimension.

See also

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek (Cyrillic spelling -ек)

  1. (Kajkavian) Suffix appended to words to create a masculine noun, usually denoting a performer, feature, human relation, result of an action, object, diminutive or a proper name.

Turkish

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

From Ottoman Turkish ـك (-ek), from Proto-Turkic *-gek.

Pronunciation

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. Creates nouns out of verbs.
    • küre- (to shovel) + -ekkürek (shovel).
    • gevre- (to become crisp) + -ekgevrek (crisp).

Derived terms

edit

Yup'ik

edit

Suffix

edit

-ek

  1. ablative-modalis case ending

Usage notes

edit

A historical merger of ablative and modalis (instrumental). It performs a wide range of adverbial and syntactic functions.[1]

References

edit
  1. ^ Miyaoka, Osahito (2012) A Grammar of Central Alaskan Yupik (CAY), Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH, →ISBN, page 750