This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Uncertain. Two different etymologies have been proposed.

  1. From Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰór-mo-s, from *gʷʰer- (warm, hot) +‎ *-mos, related to Ancient Greek θερμός (thermós), Latin formus, Persian گرم(garm) and Sanskrit घर्म (gharma).[1]
  2. From Proto-Indo-European *wór-mo-s, from *wer- (to burn) +‎ *-mos, related to Hittite [script needed] (warnuzi).[2]

The dispute is due to differing hypotheses on how Proto-Indo-European initial *gʷʰ- evolved in Germanic. Some maintain that *gʷʰ would have turned to *b, and therefore that the root *gʷʰer- would instead have given rise to *ber- (to burn) etc. (compare *banô < *gʷʰon-ō). A counterargument (e.g. Kroonen (2013: p. xxviii)) is that Germanic *w is in fact the usual outcome of *gʷʰ, citing uncontroversial examples such as *snaiwaz < *snóygʷʰos and *neurô < *négʷʰrō. There have also been etymologies proposing a merger of the two roots.




  1. warm (having a higher temperature than usual)
    Synonym: *haitaz (hot)
    Antonym: *kaldaz


Derived termsEdit



  1. 1.0 1.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*warma-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 575
  2. 2.0 2.1 Orel, Vladimir (2003), “*warmaz”, in A Handbook of Germanic Etymology, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 449