This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



*g(ʰ)i or *g(ʰ)e or *g(ʰ)o

  1. Postpositional intensifying particle, indeed, at any rate, in fact
  2. Discourse particle, indeed, of course, surely

Usage notesEdit

The particle in Proto-Indo-European was indeclinable. Some daughter languages, particularly Italic, added pronominal inflection later, as also occurred with particles *de, *h₂ew, and *ḱe. This particle could either be post-posed to the word it intensified (e.g *Hyód-gʰe wóyde - that which he knows) or that it otherwise modified (e.g *né-gʰí - not at all, not indeed), or it could begin discourse in which it is place before everything else (e.g *gʰí ... - of course, ...). The presence or lack of aspiration as well as the ablaut grade appear to have been completely arbitrary, and may have been subject to dialectal variation.

Derived termsEdit

  • *gʰe-ḱe (combined with *ḱe)
    • Proto-Italic: *hek(e)
  • *ne-g(ʰ)i (combined with *ne)
  • *sm̥-gʰé (combined with *sm̥-)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *saǰʰa
      • Proto-Indo-Aryan: *saźʰa
        • Sanskrit: सह (sahá, together with, along with)