Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/de

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

ParticleEdit

*de ~ *do or *-de ~ *-do[1]

  1. Emphatic or contrastive particle, and, but[2]
  2. Postpositive demonstrative particle, towards

Usage notesEdit

The particle in Proto-Indo-European experienced ablaut between *de and *do but was otherwise indeclinable. Some daughter languages, particularly Italic, added pronominal inflection later, as also occurred with particles *ḱe, *h₂ew, and *gʰe.[3]

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 1, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 183
  2. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2011) Comparative Indo-European Linguistics: An Introduction, revised and corrected by Michiel de Vaan, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, §17.3, page 249
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “-dam, -dē, -dō, -dum”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  4. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*dī”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 97
  5. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “δή”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 322
  6. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “endo, indu(-), indi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 189
  7. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ἔνδον”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 421-422
  8. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008), “*do”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 109
  9. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*do”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 102
  10. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “δέ”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 307
  11. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “-δε”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 307
  12. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “-de”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 162