English edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English -ken, -kien, from Old English -cian, from Proto-West Germanic *-ukōn, *-ikōn, from Proto-Germanic *-ukōną, *-ikōną. Cognate with West Frisian -kje, German -chen, Danish -ke, Swedish -ka, Faroese -ka. Perhaps related to Old English diminutive suffix -uc, -oc. More at -ock.

Suffix edit

-k

  1. (rare, no longer productive) A suffix found in words of Middle English, Old English, usually with an intensive or frequentative effect.
    tale, talk; steal, stalk; mire, mirk; hear, hark; fare, firk; peer, perk; yare, yark; gaw, gawk; well~weal~wale, walk

Abenaki edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of some animate words.
    tmakwa (beaver)tmakwak (beavers)

Usage notes edit

  • Used to form the plurals of almost all words that end in a, and of some words that end in other vowels or in the semivowel w; not used to form the plurals of words ending in consonants.
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Afar edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. Marks the ablative case: from
  2. Marks the elative case: out of
  3. Marks the perlative case: via, through
  4. Marks the malefactive case: for ...'s nuisance
  5. Marks the subject of a comparison: than
  6. (+ én) Marks the material from which an object is made: -en

References edit

  • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[1], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis), page 361

Basque edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -ek (after consonants)

Etymology edit

Unknown. Unrelated to the adverbial suffixes -ki and -ka.[1]

Suffix edit

-k

  1. Ergative indefinite suffix.

Declension edit

Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -(e)k -ak -ek
dative -(r)i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -(r)en -aren -en -on
comitative -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -(e)z -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -(r)engan -arengan -engan -ongan
inanim. -(e)tan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako -otako
allative anim. -(r)engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara -otara
terminative anim. -(r)enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -(r)enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -(r)enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -(r)engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etik -otik
partitive -(r)ik
prolative -tzat

References edit

  1. ^ -k (2)” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk.

Chuukese edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. (added to verbs) you (in the singular, indirect object suffix)

Estonian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-kkoi. Cognate with Finnish -kko.

Suffix edit

-k (genitive -ku, partitive -kut)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. a single instance of an action
      minema (to go)minek (a going)
      ründama (to attack)rünnak (an attack)
    2. the object of an action
      õppima (to study)õpik (textbook)
Declension edit
Declension of -k (ÕS type 2/õpik, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -k -kud
accusative nom.
gen. -ku
genitive -kute
partitive -kut -kuid
illative -kusse -kutesse
-kuisse
inessive -kus -kutes
-kuis
elative -kust -kutest
-kuist
allative -kule -kutele
-kuile
adessive -kul -kutel
-kuil
ablative -kult -kutelt
-kuilt
translative -kuks -kuteks
-kuiks
terminative -kuni -kuteni
essive -kuna -kutena
abessive -kuta -kuteta
comitative -kuga -kutega
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-kkei. Cognate with Finnish -kki.

Suffix edit

-k (genitive -ki, partitive -kit)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs denoting an instrument of action.
    sõitma (to drive)sõiduk (vehicle)
    hõljuma (to hover)hõljuk (hovercraft)
    tõstma (to raise)tõstuk (lift)
Declension edit
Declension of -k (ÕS type 2/õpik, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -k -kid
accusative nom.
gen. -ki
genitive -kite
partitive -kit -keid
illative -kisse -kitesse
-keisse
inessive -kis -kites
-keis
elative -kist -kitest
-keist
allative -kile -kitele
-keile
adessive -kil -kitel
-keil
ablative -kilt -kitelt
-keilt
translative -kiks -kiteks
-keiks
terminative -kini -kiteni
essive -kina -kitena
abessive -kita -kiteta
comitative -kiga -kitega
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

May be the same as etymology 2.

Suffix edit

-k (genitive -gi, partitive -ki)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs, or sometimes from other nominals. The derivations can express the following:
    1. the result of an action
      jääma (to remain)jääk (residue, remainder)
      saama (to receive)saak (yield)
    2. the object of an action
      sööma (to eat)söök (food)
      jooma (to drink)jook (drink, beverage)

Finnish edit

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

-k (dialectal)

  1. (Southwest, enclitic) Alternative form of -ko
    Löytyyk mittä? Are you finding anything?

Synonyms edit

Hungarian edit

Etymology edit

Probably related to Mansi -ыг (-yg, dual suffix).

Suffix edit

-k

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    hajó (ship) + ‎-k → ‎hajók (ships)
    alma (apple) + ‎-k → ‎almák (apples)
    mese (fairy tale) + ‎-k → ‎mesék (fairy tales)
  2. (personal suffix) Denotes the first-person singular present tense in verb suffixes for all moods (indicative, conditional and subjunctive).
    ír (to write)
    írok (I write, I am writing)
    írnék (I would write)
    írjak (I should write)
  3. (obsolete) Diminutive suffix.
    lélek (soul)
    fészek (nest)
  4. (obsolete, instantaneous verb-forming suffix) Part of only a few verbs and suffixes, such as reszket, serken, sikolt, szerkeszt, -kol/-kel/-köl, -kod/-ked/-köd, -dokol/-dekel/-dököl.

Usage notes edit

  • (plural suffix) Variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) + ‎-k → ‎k (women)
    fa (tree) + ‎-k → ‎k (trees)
    csésze (cup) + ‎-k → ‎csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) + ‎-ak → ‎házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) + ‎-ok → ‎padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) + ‎-ek → ‎kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) + ‎-ek → ‎könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) + ‎-ök → ‎körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian: három könyv (three books), néhány óra múlva (in a few hours’ time). There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok (the Three Magi), mindenszentek (All Saints), and certain archaic phrases with összes (all) and minden (every) (see their Usage notes).
  • The regular plural suffix for back-vowel adjectives is -ak, for example okosak (smart/clever ones). On the other hand, ethnonyms take -ok (e.g. olaszok (Italians), see the back-vowel terms in their category), as well as some other adjectives, including privative (“…-less”) ones (formed with -talan, -atlan, or -tlan). Rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek, for example zöldek (green ones), except for demonyms (see rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. játékosok (players, noun) and játékosak (playful, adjective as part of a plural predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős: ismerősök (acquaintances, noun) and ismerősek (familiar, adjective as part of a plural predicate).

See also edit

Ilocano edit

Pronoun edit

-k

  1. Alternative form of -ko (used before vowels and suffixes -en and -an).

See also edit

Ingrian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Reduced form of -ka. The familiar meaning is probably influenced by Russian -ка (-ka).

Pronunciation edit

Particle edit

-k

  1. Added to the indicative of a verb, used to form the interrogative aspect.
    • 1936, V. I. Junus, P. L. Maksimov, Inkeroisin keelen oppikirja alkuşkouluja vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 29:
      Töötk siä meille hoomukseel?
      Will you come to us tomorrow?
  2. Added to an imperative of a verb, used to form a familiar request.
    • 1936, D. I. Efimov, Lukukirja: Inkeroisia alkușkouluja vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 7:
      Määk siä șkouluu - sanoi Semon däädä, ilma sinnua saamma aikoo.
      Go to school - said uncle Semon, we'll get by without you.
  3. (rare) Alternative form of -ka, -kä (and not)
    • 1885, “Sprachproben: Der goldene Vogel”, in Volmari Porkka, editor, Ueber den Ingrischen Dialekt mit Berücksichtigung der übrigen finnisch-ingermanländischen Dialekte:
      Se poika mäni vahtii, heittiis makkaamaa eik nähnyt varasta.
      The boy went to the guard, threw himself and didn't see the thief.
      (Note: The spelling has been normalised in accordance with the literary Ingrian language.)

Usage notes edit

  • In the interrogative function, when added to a verb form ending in the consonant -t, the full forms -ka and -kä may be used.

References edit

  • Olga I. Konkova; Nikita A. Dyachkov (2014) Inkeroin Keel: Пособие по Ижорскому Языку[2], →ISBN, page 18

Inupiaq edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. dual number in the absolutive case. Numbers vary between singular -q and dual -k depending on whether they modify a noun or are being used for counting

Kashubian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьkъ.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. Forms masculine diminutive nouns.
  2. Forms masculine nouns from verbs.
    sus- (to suck) + ‎-k → ‎susk (mammal)

Usage notes edit

Derived terms edit

Lower Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъkъ.

Suffix edit

-k m

  1. used on masculine nouns to form a diminutive

Derived terms edit

Maltese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Arabicـكَ⁩ m (-ka), ⁧ـكِ⁩ f (-ki).

Suffix edit

-k

  1. 2nd-person singular pronominal suffix: your, you
    Synonym: tiegħek (only in possessive use)
    sħab (friends) + ‎-k → ‎sħabek (your (singular) friends)
    taħt (under) + ‎-k → ‎taħtek (under you (singular))
    jinsa (he forgets) + ‎-k → ‎jinsiek (he forgets you (singular))

Related terms edit

Mohawk edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. continuative suffix

References edit

  • Nora Deering; Helga H. Delisle (1976) Mohawk: A teaching grammar (preliminary version), Quebec: Manitou College, page 442
  • Akwiratékha’ Martin (2018) Tekawennahsonterónnion - Kanien’kéha Morphology, Kahnawà:ke: Kanien’kehá:ka Onkwawén:na Raotitióhkwa Language and Cultural Center, page 92

Northern Ohlone edit

Etymology edit

Compare Southern Ohlone -ka.

Pronoun edit

-k

  1. I (first-person, singular, subject pronoun)

See also edit

References edit

María de los Angeles Colós, José Guzman, and John Peabody Harrington (1930s) Chochenyo Field Notes (Survey of California and Other Indian Langauges)‎[3], Unpublished

Ojibwe edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. Alternative form of -g in the conjunct form of d-final inanimate instransitive verbs (vii)
  2. A suffix denoting the second-person plural to third person singular imperative form of a transitive animate verb (vta) with a Cw ending

Usage notes edit

In d-final intransitive inanimate verbs (vii), the final d merges with -g to produce -k.

See also edit

Old Norse edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronoun edit

-k (enclitic)

  1. enclitic form of ek
    hafða + ‎-k → ‎hafðak
    em + ‎-k → ‎emk
    • 9th c., Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, Ynglingatal, verse 27:
      Þat veitk bezt / und bláum himni
      kenninafn, / svát konungr eigi []
      I know that the best / nickname
      under the blue sky / that a king might have []

See also edit

Old Uyghur edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Turkic *-k.

Suffix edit

-k or -q or -wk or -wq (-k or -q or -ük or -uq)

  1. Forms deverbal nouns and adjectives.
    pʾdw (bedü-, to grow) + ‎-k → ‎pʾdwk (bedük, big, huge; high)

Derived terms edit

References edit

Onondaga edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. continuative suffix

References edit

  • Hanni Woodbury (2018) A Reference Grammar of the Onondaga Language, University of Toronto, page 104

Turkish edit

preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ık -ik -uk -ük
postvocalic -k

Suffix edit

-k

  1. Post-vocalic form of -ık.
    iste- (to want) + ‎-k → ‎istek (request, want)
    dile- (to wish) + ‎-k → ‎dilek (wish, desire)

Upper Sorbian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъkъ.

Suffix edit

-k m

  1. Used to form diminutives of masculine nouns.

Derived terms edit

Veps edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle edit

-k

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), “а, ли”, in Uz’ venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovarʹ [New Russian–Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Yoruba edit

Suffix edit

-k

  1. Used when an ordinal number is written with Arabic numerals. Often considered an abbreviation of k-, but can be used with non-k-ordinal numbers.
    kejì2k
    ogún20k