See also: hić, hiç, and ніс

English edit

Etymology edit

Onomatopoeic.

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

hic

  1. An approximation to the sound of a hiccup, used e.g. to indicate drunkenness.
    "This wine - hic! - tasted good."

Translations edit

See also edit

Anagrams edit

Aromanian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Latin fīcus. Compare Spanish higo.

Noun edit

hic m (plural hits)

  1. fig (tree) or fig (fruit)

Related terms edit

French edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin hic est quaestio (here is the question).

Noun edit

hic m (uncountable)

  1. snag, hitch, catch, kink, problem
    Voilà le hic.Here's the problem.

Etymology 2 edit

Onomatopoeic.

Interjection edit

hic

  1. hic! (indicating a hiccup)
    Ce vin, hic ! est bon.
    This wine—hic!—tastes good.

Further reading edit

Interlingua edit

Adverb edit

hic

  1. here

Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

  • ic (Vulgar or Late Latin, Pompeian inscriptions)

Etymology 1 edit

From older hec, from Proto-Italic *hoke, from Proto-Indo-European *gʰo (indeed, emphatic clitic) + *ḱe (here, deictic particle). Reconstructed forms with o are made likely by the Old Latin form hoi (this).

The feminine and neuter inflected forms were created in analogy to quī, quae, quod. In the Italic languages only Faliscan has a clear cognate inflected pronoun: hac (acc./abl. sg. f.). A petrified form may be present in the Umbrian word for "the same": eru-hu (abl. sg. m.), era-hunt ~ era-font (abl. sg. f.)[1][2]

In Indo-European the first element is cognate with Sanskrit (gha) ~ (ha, intensifier), हि (hi, surely, for), Czech že (that, conjunction), Russian же (že, intensifying particle). The second element is cognate with Latin cis (on this side), ce-dō, Ancient Greek ἐ-κε-ῖνος (e-ke-înos, that), Old Irish (here), Gothic 𐌷𐌹𐌼𐌼𐌰 (himma, to this). More at he, here.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

hic (feminine haec, neuter hoc); first/second-declension adjective (hic-type)

  1. this; these (in the plural)
    Sī versūs hōrum duōrum poetārum neglegētis, magnā parte litterārum carēbitis.
    If you neglect the verses of these two poets, you will miss a great part of literature.
    Hanc rem pūblicam salvam esse volumus.
    We wish this republic to be safe.

Pronoun edit

hic (feminine haec, neuter hoc); first/second-declension pronoun (hic-type)

  1. this one; this (thing); these ones (in the plural); these (things); he, she, it
    Mitte hunc meā grātiā.
    Let him alone for my sake.
    • c. 4 BCE – 65 CE, Seneca the Younger, De brevitate vitae 15:
      Hōrum tē morī nēmō cōget, omnēs docēbunt; hōrum nēmō annōs tuōs conteret, suōs tibi contribuet; nūllīus ex hīs sermō perīculōsus erit, nūllīus amīcitia capitālis, nūllīus sūmptuōsa observātiō.
      No one of these will force you to die, but all will teach you how to die; no one of these will wear out your years, but each will add his own years to yours; nothing from these conversations will bring you peril, the friendship of none will endanger your life, the courting of none will tax your purse.
    • 43 BCEc. 17 CE, Ovid, Fasti 4.777:
      hīs dea plācanda est
      With these [supplications] must the goddess be appeased
Declension edit
  • In Medieval Latin pl. fem. hae through some vulgar form, *haeae, is replaced by hee.
  • When combined with the interrogative clitic -ne, an i is restored at the end of the word: hicine, haecine, hocine, etc.

First/second-declension adjective (hic-type).

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative hic haec hoc hae haec
Genitive huius hōrum hārum hōrum
Dative huic hīs
Accusative hunc hanc hoc hōs hās haec
Ablative hōc hāc hōc hīs

Usage notes edit

  • This demonstrative adjective/pronoun is used to refer to a person or thing, or persons or things, near the speaker. It contrasts with ille (that), which refers to people or things far from the speaker and the listener, and iste (this/that), which refers to people or things near the listener.
  • As Latin had no person pronouns specifically meaning "he", "she" or "it", any of ille, iste, hic or (most frequently) is could assume that function.
  • In Vulgar Latin, phonetic changes tended to eliminate both the initial h and final c, leaving nothing but a bare vowel. Consequently, this demonstrative gradually disappeared and was replaced with iste, which originally meant "that (near you)". (This left only a two-term system of demonstratives in comparison with Latin's three-term system, but the gap was filled in some areas by pressing ipse into service as a middle demonstrative. Spanish, for example, has este (this) < Latin iste, ese (that (near you)) < Latin ipse, and aquel (that (far from you and me)) < Latin eccum ille.) This process was gradual, and the neuter form hoc survived the longest (it still survives, for example, in Catalan ho). Other forms sometimes survived in compound expressions, e.g. Portuguese agora (now) < Latin hāc hōrā.

Coordinate terms edit

Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From older heic, adverb (locative) from hic.

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

hīc (not comparable)

  1. here, in or at this place
Coordinate terms edit
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • >? Italo-Romance:
    • Italian: ci
    • Neapolitan: ce
    • Sicilian: ci
  • Padanian:
    • Piedmontese: i
  • Northern Gallo-Romance:
    • Franco-Provençal: y
    • French: y
  • Southern Gallo-Romance:
    • Aragonese: i
    • Catalan: hi
    • Occitan: i
  • Ibero-Romance:
  • Borrowings:

References edit

  1. ^ Dunkel, George E. (2014), “Lexikon [Lexicon]”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Partikeln und Pronominalstämme [Lexicon of Indo-European Particles and Pronominal Stems] (Indogermanische Bibliothek. 2. Reihe: Wörterbücher) (in German), volume 2, Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter GmbH Heidelberg, →ISBN, page 285
  2. ^ * Jürgen Untermann, Wörterbuch des Oskisch-Umbrischen, 3rd volume of Handbuch der italischen Dialekte, 2000, p. 229f.

Further reading edit

  • hic”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • hic”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • hic in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the visible world: haec omnia, quae videmus
    • the territory of this race extends as far as the Rhine: haec gens pertinet usque ad Rhenum
    • the present day: haec tempora, nostra haec aetas, memoria
    • (ambiguous) in our time; in our days: his temporibus, nostra (hac) aetate, nostra memoria, his (not nostris) diebus
    • according to the present custom, fashion: his moribus
    • twenty years ago: abhinc (ante) viginti annos or viginti his annis
    • those to whom we owe our being: ei, propter quos hanc lucem aspeximus
    • our contemporaries; men of our time: homines huius aetatis, nostrae memoriae
    • here lies..: hic situs est...
    • that is the way of the world; such is life: haec est rerum humanarum condicio
    • the case is exactly similar (entirely different): eadem (longe alia) est huius rei ratio
    • what will be the issue, end, consequence of the matter: quorsum haec res cadet or evadet?
    • what am I to do with this fellow: quid huic homini (also hoc homine) faciam?
    • these things have the same origin: haec ex eodem fonte fluunt, manant
    • the decision of the question rests with you: penes te arbitrium huius rei est
    • I console myself with..: haec (illa) res me consolatur
    • an idea strikes me: haec cogitatio subit animum
    • this is more plausible than true: haec speciosiora quam veriora sunt
    • a proof of this is that..: argumento huic rei est, quod
    • the history of our own times; contemporary history: memoria huius aetatis (horum temporum)
    • to answer to this effect: respondere in hanc sententiam
    • I said it in jest: haec iocatus sum, per iocum dixi
    • what follows has been translated into Latin from Plato's Phaedo: ex Platonis Phaedone haec in latinum conversa sunt
    • to translate freely: his fere verbis, hoc fere modo convertere, transferre
    • these are mere empty phrases: haec verba sunt (Ter. Phorm. 3. 2. 32)
    • we have no expression for that: huic rei deest apud nos vocabulum
    • what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quid significat, sonat haec vox?
    • what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae est vis huius verbi?
    • what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae notio or sententia subiecta est huic voci?
    • this word ends in a long syllable: haec vox longa syllaba terminatur, in longam syllabam cadit, exit
    • the book treats of friendship: hic liber est de amicitia (not agit) or hoc libro agitur de am.
    • Cicero says this somewhere: Cicero loco quodam haec dicit
    • the terms, contents of the letter are as follows: litterae in hanc sententiam or his verbis scriptae sunt
    • this fable teaches us (without nos): haec fabula docet
    • credit is going down: fides (vid. sect. IX. 10, note fides has six...) concidit
    • to ordain as punishment that..: hanc poenam constituere in aliquem, ut...
    • on these terms: his condicionibus
    • this I have to say: haec habeo dicere or habeo quae dicam
    • he spoke (very much) as follows: haec (fere) dixit
    • the tenor of his speech was this..: hanc in sententiam dixit
    • this is not the place to..: non est huius loci c. Inf.
    • this is not the place to..: non est hic locus, ut...
    • so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: atque or sed haec (quidem) hactenus
    • so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: atque haec quidem de...
    • this much he said: haec (quidem) ille
    • this is very much what Cicero said: haec Ciceronis fere
    • this passage is obscure: hic (ille) locus obscurus est
    • what do you mean: quorsum haec (dicis)?
    • (ambiguous) in our time; in our days: his temporibus, nostra (hac) aetate, nostra memoria, his (not nostris) diebus
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy the privilege of living; to be alive: vita or hac luce frui
    • (ambiguous) (great) advantage accrues to me from this: fructus ex hac re redundant in or ad me
    • (ambiguous) I think that..: in hac sum sententia, ut...putem
    • (ambiguous) all agree on this point: omnes (uno ore) in hac re consentiunt
    • (ambiguous) when corn is as dear as it is: hac annona (Plaut. Trin. 2. 4. 83)
    • (ambiguous) I have a few words to say on this: mihi quaedam dicenda sunt de hac re
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN

Middle English edit

Pronoun edit

hic

  1. Alternative form of I (I)

Vietnamese edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Onomatopoeia, from the sobbing sound. Compare hức (sob; hic).

Pronunciation edit

Interjection edit

hic

  1. (onomatopoeia) sob
  2. (comics, Internet slang) dang; darn; aw man; man
  3. (onomatopoeia) Synonym of hức (hic)