- *-t (syncope)
- Feminine-forming suffix.
- Abstract/collective-forming suffix.
- Synonym: *-ay (on certain words)
- Syncopation of unstressed vowels caused the form *-t to appear in many nouns; in some descendants, this distinction became lexicalized.
- Proto-Semitic numerals from three to ten were formed adding the abstract/collective suffix *-at to the root. The bare root morpheme continued to be used with feminine nouns, which led to a phenomenon of gendered numerals in various Semitic languages.
- *ʔaḫwat- (“sister”)
- *bint- (“daughter”)
- *baʕlat- (“mistress, lady”)
- *ʔilāhat- (“goddess”)
- *-atum (nominative absolutive forming-suffix) (+ *-um (singular nominative ending))
- Arabic: ة (-ah)
- Maltese: -a
- Hebrew: ־ה (-ah, feminine suffix)
- → Yiddish: ־ה (-e)
- Hebrew: ית (-ít, feminine suffix)
- Hebrew: ־ות (-ut, abstract/collective and feminine suffix)
- Huehnergard, John (2019) , “Proto-Semitic”, in Huehnergard, John and Na'ama Pat-El, editors, The Semitic Languages, 2nd edition, Routledge, →ISBN