See also: ۃ[U+06C3 ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA GOAL], ۀ[U+06C0 ARABIC LETTER HEH WITH YEH ABOVE], ۂ[U+06C2 ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL WITH HAMZA ABOVE], ہ[U+06C1 ARABIC LETTER HEH GOAL], ه[U+0647 ARABIC LETTER HEH], and ھ[U+06BE ARABIC LETTER HEH DOACHASHMEE]
ة U+0629, ة
ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA
ب
[U+0628]
Arabic ت
[U+062A]
U+FE93, ﺓ
ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA ISOLATED FORM

[U+FE92]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FE94]
U+FE94, ﺔ
ARABIC LETTER TEH MARBUTA FINAL FORM

[U+FE93]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FE95]

ArabicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ة‎ (تَاء مَرْبُوطَة(tāʾ marbūṭa))

  1. ة(tāʾ marbūṭa) is a variant of the letter ت(tāʾ) used at the end of words. It is formed from the letter ه(hāʾ) with the addition of the two overdots of ت(tāʾ).
Usage notesEdit
  • It mostly exists in grammatically feminine words. It always follows a fatḥa ـَ ("a"), and it is replaced with a normal ت(tāʾ) when a suffix is added, e.g. غُرْفَة(ḡurfa, a room) -> غُرْفَتِي (ḡurfatī, my room) (غُرْفَة(ḡurfa)‎ (ة‎ -> ت‎‎) + ـِي()‎).
  • When desinential inflection is used in Classical Arabic or in formal Modern Standard Arabic, non-pausal ة‎ is pronounced as /t/ (preceded by usually unwritten fatḥa "a") and has -u/un, -i/-in, -a/an case endings, e.g. لُغَةٌ‎ - "luḡah" (pausal), "luḡatun" formal, non-pausal pronunciation (nominative case, indefinite).
  • Adverbials from tāʾ marbūṭa do not add alif (ا‎) with fatḥatān. Instead, fatḥatān is attached directly to tāʾ marbūṭa and the "hidden t" is pronounced with the ending "-an" e .g. عَادَةً(ʿādatan, usually).
  • In a more relaxed orthography ة‎ is replaced with ه(hāʾ) with the same pronunciation, especially in Egypt and Sudan.
  • Loanwords in other languages (e.g. Persian or Turkish) from words with tāʾ marbūṭa use the endings at, et, ah, a or e.

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Semitic *-at- from Proto-Afroasiatic *-t, *-Vt (feminine suffix). See also Egyptian -t.

PronunciationEdit

  • (informal, pausal) IPA(key): /-a/, /-ah/
  • (Levantine Arabic) IPA(key): /-e/ (following a buccal, non-emphatic consonant other than /r/; following /iːr/)

SuffixEdit

ـَة (-a)

  1. Suffix used to form feminine adjectives from masculine adjectives.
  2. Suffix used to form feminine nouns from masculine nouns referring to people.
  3. Suffix used to form singulative nouns (referring to one item) from collective nouns (referring to a collection of items): for instance, بَقَرَة(baqara, cow) from بَقَر(baqar, cattle) or شَجَرَة(šajara, tree) from شَجَر(šajar, trees).
  4. Suffix used to form instance nouns (nomina vicis, referring to a single instance of an action) from verbal nouns: for instance, اِبْتِسَامَة(ibtisāma, a smile) from اِبْتِسَام(ibtisām, smiling) or اِنْتِفَاضَة(intifāḍa, an uprising, an intifada) from اِنْتِفَاض(intifāḍ, rising up, shaking off).
  5. Suffix used to form abstract nouns from nisba adjectives in ـِيّ(-iyy): for instance, اِشْتِرَاكِيَّة(ištirākiyya, socialism) from اِشْتِرَاكِيّ(ištirākiyy, socialist). Alternatively, the combination of the two suffixes can be viewed as a single suffix ـِيَّة(-iyya).
  6. Suffix used to form nouns referring to devices from occupational/characteristic nouns and adjectives (e.g. دَبَّابَة(dabbāba, tank) from دَبَّاب(dabbāb, crawling, crawler)) and from active participles (e.g. طَابِعَة(ṭābiʿa, printer (computing device)) from طَابِع(ṭābiʿ, printer (person))).
  7. Suffix used to form nouns of various sorts from adjectives: for instance, قَرِينَة(qarīna, connection) from قَرِين(qarīn, connected) or مُعَلَّقَة(muʿallaqa, poster, placard) from مُعَلَّق(muʿallaq, suspended).
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Maltese: -a

South Levantine ArabicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic ـَة(-a).

SuffixEdit

ـة (-e/-a/-tf

  1. Ending of most feminine nouns in the singular
  2. Feminine suffix for nouns referring to people
  3. Feminine suffix for adjectives
  4. Singulative suffix from collective nouns (they become grammatically feminine)

Usage notesEdit

  • Nouns ending in ـة are not always feminine, it can also occur in broken plurals and rarely in masculine singular nouns.
  • The pronunciation varies depending on the previous consonant. It might also vary by region, but generally the pronunciation is:
    • “-a” (IPA(key): [a~æ]) after “throat” consonants (ʔ, ʕ, ḡ, h, ḥ, ḵ), e.g. لغة(luḡa), منيحة(mnīḥa)
    • “-a” (IPA(key): [ɑ]) after “emphatic” consonants (ḍ, q, r, ṣ, ṭ, ẓ), e.g. قصة(ʾuṣṣa), مرة(mara)
    • “-e” (IPA(key): [ɛ~e]) after the remaining consonants and “r” in the ending “-īr”, e.g. غرفة(ġurfe), كبيرة(kbīre)
    • silent after a vowel “a”, which is then pronounced long and stressed, e.g. حياة(ḥayā), صلاة(ṣalā)
  • In the construct form (first noun of an idafa), the pronunciation is “-et” or “-at”, but the spelling remains unchanged.
    بداية‎ ― bidāyebeginning
    بداية القصة‎ ― bidāyet il-ʾuṣṣathe beginning of the story
  • When a suffix is added, the spelling and pronunciation changes to ت(t), with or without a preceding vowel, depending on the stress.
    فرشة‎ ― faršebed
    فرشتي‎ ― fárštimy bed
    فرشتها‎ ― faršéthaher bed

See alsoEdit

  • Feminine plural suffix for nouns: ـات(-āt)