This Proto-Turkic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Possibly borrowed from Northeastern Iranian[1][2], from Proto-Iranian *Hr̥pā́š (barley), or perhaps Tocharian[3], both from Proto-Indo-European *h₂élbʰit. Alternatively from *ar- (to multiply oneself, be numerous), whence Old Turkic [script needed] (arka, multitude, crowd).[4] The term appears to be related to Proto-Mongolic *arbaï (barley) as well, possibly through borrowing. Compare also Mongolian арвай (arvay), Dongxiang apa.[5][6]



  1. barley



  • Oghur:
    • Chuvash: урпа (urp̬a)

See alsoEdit

Foods - *yẹ̄miĺčler
barley: *arpa beans, peas: *burčak farro: *bodu
(>*bodugay>*bogday “wheat”)
jujube: *yidge strawberry: *yidgelek apple: *almïla
hazelnut: *bōńurï walnut: *yaŋgak honey: *bạl
millet: *tạrïg onion: *sogan salt: *tūŕ
egg: *yumurtka butter: *yāg mushroom: *kömbe

Further readingEdit

  • Hyllested, Adam (2014) Word Exchange at the Gates of Europe: Five Millennia of Language Contact[4], Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Humanities, pages 32-33


  1. ^ Jokl, Norbert (1911) Studien zur albanesischen Etymologie und Wortbildung (Sitzungsberichte der Philosophisch-Historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften; 168) (in German), Vienna: A. Hölder, page 90
  2. 2.0 2.1 Dybo, Anna (2014), “Early contacts of Turks and problems of Proto-Turkic reconstruction”, in Tatarica[1], volume 2, page 9
  3. ^ Clauson, Gerard (1972), “?F arpa”, in An Etymological Dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 198b
  4. ^ Tatarincev, B. I. (2000–2008), “Proto-Turkic/arpa”, in Monguš D. A., editor, Etimologičeskij slovarʹ tuvinskovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Tuvan Language] (in Russian), Novosibirsk: Nauka
  5. ^ Tokat, Feyza (2014), “On the Common Words in Mongolian and the Turkish Dialects in Turkey”, in The Journal of International Social Research (Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi)[2], volume 7, issue 32, ISSN 1307-9581, pages 185-198.
  6. ^ Nugteren, Hans (2011) Mongolic phonology and the Qinghai-Gansu languages (dissertation)‎[3], Utrecht: LOT
  7. ^ Tenišev E. R., editor (2001), “*arpa”, in Sravnitelʹno-istoričeskaja grammatika tjurkskix jazykov: Leksika [Comparative Historical Grammar of Turkic Languages: Lexis] (in Russian), volume IV, Moscow: Nauka, pages 460-461