See also: J, ك‎, , and
Arabic Lam.gif
ل U+0644, ل
ARABIC LETTER LAM
ك
[U+0643]
Arabic م
[U+0645]
U+FEDD, ﻝ
ARABIC LETTER LAM ISOLATED FORM

[U+FEDC]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEDE]
U+FEDE, ﻞ
ARABIC LETTER LAM FINAL FORM

[U+FEDD]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEDF]
U+FEDF, ﻟ
ARABIC LETTER LAM INITIAL FORM

[U+FEDE]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEE0]
U+FEE0, ﻠ
ARABIC LETTER LAM MEDIAL FORM

[U+FEDF]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FEE1]

ArabicEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /laːm/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /l/, /ɫ/

Etymology 1Edit

LetterEdit

ل / ل‍ / ‍ل‍ / ‍ل (lām)

  1. The twenty-third letter of the Arabic alphabet. It is preceded by ك(k) and followed by م(m).
See alsoEdit

SymbolEdit

ل / ل‍ / ‍ل‍ / ‍ل (lām)

  1. The twelfth letter in traditional abjad order, which is used in place of numerals for list numbering (abjad numerals). It is preceded by ك(k) and followed by م(m).

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Semitic *lV-.

PronunciationEdit

PrepositionEdit

لِـ (li-)

  1. to, for, belonging to.
InflectionEdit
    Inflected forms
Base form لِـ (li-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person لِي / لِيَ(lī / liya) لَنَا(lanā)
Second person لَكَ(laka) لَكِ(laki) لَكُمَا(lakumā) لَكُمْ(lakum) لَكُنَّ(lakunna)
Third person لَهُ(lahu) لَهَا(lahā) لَهُمَا(lahumā) لَهُمْ(lahum) لَهُنَّ(lahunna)

PrepositionEdit

لَـ (la-)

  1. Used to express admiration or to call for help
    يَا لَلْعَجَبِ!‎‎
    yā lalʿajabi!
    How wonderful!
    يَا لَهُ مِنْ عَالِمِ رَائِعِ!‎‎
    yā lahu min ʿālimi rāʾiʿi!
    What a wonderful world!
Usage notesEdit

It is often used in the form يَا لَهُ [مِنْ] ...‎, that is, يَا لَـ followed by an enclitic pronoun that does not refer to any previous noun. Rather the pronoun refers to what follows it, with an optional مِنْ‎ in the middle.[1]

InflectionEdit
    Inflected forms
Base form لَـ (la-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person لِي / لِيَ(lī / liya) لَنَا(lanā)
Second person لَكَ(laka) لَكِ(laki) لَكُمَا(lakumā) لَكُمْ(lakum) لَكُنَّ(lakunna)
Third person لَهُ(lahu) لَهَا(lahā) لَهُمَا(lahumā) لَهُمْ(lahum) لَهُنَّ(lahunna)

ConjunctionEdit

لِـ (li-)

  1. to, in order to: followed by the subjunctive mood
    دَخَلْتُ ٱلْمَطْبَخَ لِأَشْرَبَ مَاءً.‎‎
    daḵaltu l-maṭbaḵa li-ʾašraba māʾan.
    I entered the kitchen to drink water.
  2. used with the verbs أَرَادَ(ʾarāda) and أَمَرَ(ʾamara)
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 33:33:
      إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللّٰهُ لِيُذُهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ
      ʾinnamā yurīdu llāhu liyuḏuhiba ʿankumu r-rijsa
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
  3. only to (لَامُ الْعَاقِبَة(lāmu l-ʿāqiba))
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 28:8:
      فَالْتَقَطَهُ آلُ فِرْعَوْنَ لِيَكُونَ لَهُمْ عَدُوًّا وَحَزَنًا
      fāltaqaṭahu ʾālu firʿawna li-yakūna lahum ʿaduwwan wa-ḥazanan
      And so the family of the Pharaoh picked him up, only to become an enemy and a grief.
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

لِـ (li-)

  1. Used to introduce an imperative with a jussive verb; let
    • 9th century, Muslim ibn Al-Hajjaj, quoting Muhammad, “كتاب الحج”, in Sahih Muslim:
      لِتَأْخُذُوا مَنَاسِكَكُمْ فَإِنِّي لَا أَدْرِي لَعَلِّي لَا أَحُجُّ بَعْدَ حَجَّتِي هَذِهِ
      litaʾḵuḏū manāsikakum faʾinnī lā ʾadrī laʿallī lā ʾaḥujju baʿda ḥajjatī haḏihi
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 18:29:
      وَقُلِ ٱلْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ فَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيُؤْمِنْ وَمَنْ شَاءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ
      waquli l-ḥaqqu min rabbikum faman šāʾa falyuʾmin waman šāʾa falyakfur
      And say, "The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills, let him believe; and whoever wills, let him disbelieve."

Etymology 4Edit

PronunciationEdit

ParticleEdit

لَـ (la-)

  1. (intensifying particle) truly, verily, certainly, surely
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 29:41:
      وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ ٱلْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ ٱلْعَنكَبُوتِ
      wa-ʾinna ʾawhana l-buyūti la-baytu l-ʿankabūti
      And indeed, the weakest of homes is the home of the spider,
Usage notesEdit

Frequently used after إِنَّ(ʾinna).

Etymology 5Edit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

لِ (li) (form I)

  1. second-person masculine singular active imperative of وَلِيَ(waliya)

ReferencesEdit

  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “ل”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN
  1. ^ de Sacy, Silvestre (1831) Grammaire arabe[1] (in French), volume 1, pages 475-476

KashmiriEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل (l)

  1. The thirty-sixth letter of the traditional alphabet chart of Kashmiri.

FormsEdit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: گ(g)
  • Next letter: م(m)

KazakhEdit

Cyrillic Л, л
Arabic ل

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل (l)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Kazakh in Arabic Script. It represents the Cyrillic letter Л.

FormsEdit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: ڭ
  • Next letter: م

KhowarEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل (lām)

  1. The thirty-ninth and first lam letter of the Khowar abjad.

FormsEdit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: گ
  • Next letter: ڵ

MalayEdit

 
Malay Wikipedia has an article on:
ل
Wikipedia ms

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل / ل‍ / ‍ل‍ / ‍ل

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Arabic script.

See alsoEdit


North Levantine ArabicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic لِ(li, to, for, towards). The initial syllable in suffixed forms is likely a contemporary development rather than influence from Arabic إِلَى(ʾilā, to, for, towards), whose initial glottal stop would have naturally been lost as seen below; instead, compare the development of the initial syllable in إِجَا(ʾija, to come).

PrepositionEdit

ل (la)

  1. to, towards
  2. for
  3. by; made by; pertaining to
Usage notesEdit
  • Personal suffixes are attached to the stem ʾil-: إلي(ʾili, to me), إلك(ʾilak, to you), etc. Often, however, reduplicated forms from the stem laʾil- are used, thus لإلي(laʾili), لإلك(laʾilak).
SynonymsEdit
  • (towards): ع(ʿa); صوب(ṣawb)
  • (for): كرمال(kirmāl) and synonyms there.

ConjunctionEdit

ل (la)

  1. in order that
Usage notesEdit
  • Also equivalent to the often-invisible English for as in for to.
SynonymsEdit

SuffixEdit

ـلـ (-l-, -ill-)

  1. to, for; dative suffix
    صِرت قَايلِتلَك مِليوْن مَرَّة مَا تدَعْوِسْلِي عَالأرض البَعدنَا منَضّفِينو!‎‎
    ṣirt ʾāylitlak milyōn marra ma tdaʿwisli ʿal-ʾarḍ l-baʿdna mnaḍḍfīno!
    I've told you a million times, don't step all over the floor if we've just cleaned it!
    (literally, “I've said to you a million times, don't step [for] me all over the floor that we've just cleaned!”)
Usage notesEdit
  • Immediately followed by a personal suffix. ل (-l-) almost-always avoids creating superheavy syllables before itself.
    • Superheavy syllables CVVC are avoided by contracting the long vowel, such as when attaching to a hollow verb. In particular, long ā, even when raised to ē as in Lebanon and urban Syria, always contracts to a rather than to i — and North Levantine varieties have overwhelmingly merged short u and short i into i, meaning that ū and ī also both contract into i.
      جَاب(jāb (jēb), he brought)جَبلِي (jabli, he brought me, literally he brought to me), not *جَابلِي (*jābli (*jēbli)).
      شُوف(šūf, look at, check out, masculine imperative)شِفلِي (šifli, look at [...] for me, check out for me)
    • Some speakers extend this to the plural ending -īn of active participles.
      قَايلِين(ʾāylīn, have said, pl)قَايلِينلي (ʾāylīnli) or قَايلِنلي (ʾāylinli, have told me, plural, literally have said to me).
    • The suffix avoids all other kinds of heavy syllables by attaching to the base as either -ill- or -all-. The -all- ending is used on third-person masculine singular Form I biliteral verbs in the past tense, and the -ill- ending everywhere else.
      حَطّ(ḥaṭṭ, he set down, transitive)حَطَّلِّي (ḥaṭṭalli, he set down for me, transitive)
      مشِيت(mšīt, you walked, masculine)مشِيتِلَّك (mšītilli, you walked to me; you walked for me)
      كَتَبت(katabt, you wrote, masculine)كَتَبتِلِّي (katabtilli, you wrote to me; you wrote for me)
    • In other cases, i.e. in environments where sticking -l- directly onto the end of the base would not create a final heavy syllable, it attaches as is.
      كَتَبِت(katabit, she wrote)كَتَبَِتلِي (katabatli, katabitli, she wrote to me; she wrote for me)
  • Unlike in Egyptian Arabic, the Levantine form of this suffix can only attach to the base word, not to any preceding suffixes. This means it bumps any object suffixes off into their own words.
    • حَطَّيْناه (ḥaṭṭaynḗ, we put it down)حَطَّيْنالِك ياه، حَطَّيْنالِك هو (ḥaṭṭaynēlik yē, ḥaṭṭaynēlik huwwe, we put it down for you)
  • This suffix isn't limited to appearing on verbs and their active participles. It can also attach to elatives, passive participles of verbs, and even other parts of speech.
    • It only rarely appears on other parts of speech, and when it does, it's the result of an originally-unbound لَ (la, to, for) merging into a word it commonly appears with. That's the case with بَعدِلّـ(baʿdill-, (of time) remaining for), from بَعْد(baʿd, still; remaining, adverb, literally [there is] still [time]) + لـ (l-, for; belonging to).
    • It's also uncommon for this suffix to attach to passive participles, which means that passive participles that end in ū will generally contract it into a short u instead of a short i if it's attached to them. Two somewhat-common examples are مَسمُحلـ(masmuḥl-, permitted for) and مقَدَّرلـ(mʾaddarl-, fated for, preordained for).
    • It can only attach to elatives to refer to the better or best of a set of choices, like أَريَحَلِي(ʾaryaḥli, more/most comfortable for me) and أَنضَفلنَا(ʾanḍaflna, cleaner/cleanest for us). It's generally invalid to use it on an elative that describes a negative trait, like *أَوْسَخلَك(*ʾawsaḵlak, dirtier/dirtiest for you) or *أصعَبلَك(ʾaṣʿablak, more/most difficult for you), because it imparts a positive slant on the trait the elative describes. In contrast, عَلَى(ʿala, in relation to) can construe elatives no matter what they mean: أَهيَن علَيك(ʾahyan ʿlēk, easier for you) is synonymous with أَهيَنلَك(ʾahyanlak, easier for you), but the only valid antonym is أَصعَب علَيك (ʾaṣʿab ʿlēk, more/most difficult for you, literally more/most difficult in relation to you) instead of *أصعَبلَك(ʾaṣʿablak, more/most difficult for you).

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic إِلَى(ʾilā, to, for, toward).

PrepositionEdit

ل (la)

  1. to, toward
Usage notesEdit
  • Its suffix-base form is lay-, similarly to عَلَى(ʿala). This distinguishes it from the preposition above when constructed with a personal suffix.
  • For the most part, only used in the phrases مِنُّو لَيه(minno lē, in its entirety; altogether, literally from it to it), قِدِر لَ (ʾidir la, to be able to handle, literally to be able toward), فِيه لَ (fī la, can handle, literally can toward), and إِجَا لَ (ʾija la, to come for). However, it is also uncommonly used to construe other verbs of motion as a generalized sense of the last phrase, where it retains the sense of intending “to apprehend or cause harm” suggested by come for:
    وَاللَّه حَإِضهَر لَيك
    waḷḷa ḥaʾiḍhar lēk
    I swear, I'm going to come out there and come for you.
    (literally, “I swear I'm going to come out toward you”)

PashtoEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل (lâm)

  1. The thirty-fourth letter of the Pashto alphabet.

FormsEdit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: ګ
  • Next letter: م

PersianEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (file)

LetterEdit

ل / لـ / ـلـ / ـل (lâm)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet. It is preceded by گ‎ and followed by م‎. Its name is لام‎.

SindhiEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل (lām)

  1. The forty-sixth letter of the Sindhi abjad.

FormsEdit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: ڱ
  • Next letter: م

South Levantine ArabicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic لِ(li).

PrepositionEdit

لـ (la-)

  1. to (someone); belonging to; for
  2. to (a place)
    Synonym: على(ʕala)
  3. until, up to
    Synonyms: حتّى(ḥatta), لحدّ(la-ḥadd)

ConjunctionEdit

لـ (la-)

  1. so that (before a subjuctive verb)
    Synonyms: حتّى(ḥatta-), عشان(ʕašan), منشان(minšān)

SuffixEdit

ـلـ (-l-, il, -ill-)

  1. to; for (indirect object suffix with an attached enclitic pronoun)
    Synonym: (detached version for emphasis) إلـ(ʾil-)

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix is attached to a verb expressing the indirect object.
  • If the verb ends in a consonant cluster, the "-l-" is geminated and the stress shifts before an enclitic pronoun starting with a vowel.

InflectionEdit

    Inflected forms of ل
Base form ـلـ (-l-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person ـلي(-li, -illi) ـلنا(-lna, -ilna)
2nd person ـلك(-lak, -illak) ـلك(-lek, -illek) ـلكم(-lkom, ilkom)
3rd person ـله(-lo, -illo) ـلها(-lha, -ilha) ـلهم(-lhom, ihom)
Examples
Vowel One consonant Two consonants
Example حكى(ḥáka, he talked) كتب(kátab, he wrote) كتبت(katábt, I/you wrote)
1st singular حكالي(ḥakā-li) كتبلي(katáb-li) كتبتلي(katabt-ílli)
plural حكالنا(ḥakā-lna) كتبلنا(katab-ílna) كتبتلنا(katabt-ílna)
2nd masculine حكالك(ḥakā-lak) كتبلك(katáb-lak) كتبتلك(katabt-íllak)
feminine حكالك(ḥakā-lek) كتبلك(katáb-lek) كتبتلك(katabt-íllek)
plural حكالكم(ḥakā-lkom) كتبلكم(katab-ílkom) كتبتلكم(katabt-ílkom)
3rd masculine حكاله(ḥakā-lo) كتبله(katáb-lo) كتبتله(katabt-íllo)
feminine حكالها(ḥakā-lha) كتبلها(katab-ílha) كتبتلها(katabt-ílha)
plural حكالهم(ḥakā-lhom) كتبلهم(katab-ílhom) كتبتلهم(katabt-ílhom)

UrduEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل (lām)

  1. The thirtieth letter of the Urdu abjad.

FormsEdit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: گ
  • Next letter: م

UyghurEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

ل (le)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Uyghur alphabet.

FormsEdit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ل ـل ـلـ لـ

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: ڭ(ng)
  • Next letter: م(m)