See also:پ⁩, ⁧ت⁩, ⁧ث, andٮ

ب U+0628, ب
ARABIC LETTER BEH
ا
[U+0627]
Arabic ة
[U+0629]
U+FE8F, ﺏ
ARABIC LETTER BEH ISOLATED FORM

[U+FE8E]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FE90]
U+FE90, ﺐ
ARABIC LETTER BEH FINAL FORM

[U+FE8F]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FE91]
U+FE91, ﺑ
ARABIC LETTER BEH INITIAL FORM

[U+FE90]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FE92]
U+FE92, ﺒ
ARABIC LETTER BEH MEDIAL FORM

[U+FE91]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FE93]

Arabic edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب / ب‍ / ‍ب‍ / ‍ب (bāʔ)

  1. The second letter of the Arabic alphabet. Its name is ⁧بَاء(bāʔ) and it has the sound of English b. It is preceded by ⁧أ(ʔ) and followed by ⁧ت(t).
See also edit

Symbol edit

ب / ب‍ / ‍ب‍ / ‍ب (bāʔ)

  1. The second letter in traditional abjad order, which is used in place of numerals for list numbering (abjad numerals). It is preceded by ⁧أ(ʔ) and followed by ⁧ج(j).

Noun edit

ب (b)

  1. Abbreviation of باب(bāb, chapter).

Etymology 2 edit

Ultimately Proto-Semitic *bV- (with, in, at, among) with likely interrelation with Proto-Semitic *bayt- (site, location; nest, house); cognates with Ugaritic 𐎁 (b), Aramaicב־⁩, Classical Syriacܒ-⁩, Hebrewבְּ־(bə-), Ge'ez () and Egyptian bw.

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

بِـ (bi-)

  1. denotes an instrument or tool, with, by (a means)
    طَرَقْتُ الْمِسْمَارَ بِمِطْرَقَةٍ
    ṭaraqtu l-mismāra bi-miṭraqatin
    I hit the nail with a hammer
    رَماهُم بِٱلْحِجَارَةِ
    ramāhum bi-l-ḥijārati
    He pelted them with stones.
  2. denotes the agent of unaccusative forms
    هُوَ يَتَقَوَّى بِهِ
    huwa yataqawwā bihi
    He is strengthened by it
    Coordinate term: (post-Classical)بِوَاسِطَة(biwāsiṭa, denotes the agent of passive forms)
  3. denotes accompaniment
    Coordinate term:مَعَ(maʕa)
    1. with (a component)
      قَهْوةٌ بِٱلْحَلِيبِ⁩ ― qahwatun bi-l-ḥalībicoffee with milk
    2. with (a quality); in (a state)
      بِسُرُورٍ⁩ ― bi-surūrinwith pleasure
      بِٱمْتِيازٍ⁩ ― bi-mtiyāzinwith success and distinction
  4. denotes proximity, with, to, next to, at (touching on, connected with, concerning)
    مَرْبُوطٌ بِشَجَرَةٍ⁩ ― marbūṭun bi-šajaratintied to a tree
    لَا عَلاقةَ لَهُ بِٱلْمَوْضُوعِ⁩ ― lā ʕalāqata lahu bi-l-mawḍūʕiunrelated to the subject
  5. denotes inclusion, surrounding, or location, within (a place); in; on; at
    بِٱلْأَرْضِ⁩ ― bi-l-ʔarḍion the earth/in or inside the ground
    بِٱلقَرْيةِ⁩ ― bi-l-qaryatiin the village
    بِٱلْمَكْتَبَةِ⁩ ― bi-l-maktabatiat the library
    بِٱلْمَكْتَبِ⁩ ― bi-l-maktabiat the office/in the desk
    Synonym:فِي()
  6. denotes requital, giving or doing in return; for
    اِشْتَرَيْتُهُ بِأَلْفِ رِيَالٍ.
    ištaraytuhu bi-ʔalfi riyālin.
    I bought it for a thousand riyals.
  7. marks the predicate of a negative copula
    هُوَ لَيْسَ بِشَاهِدٍ وَلَا بِقَارِئٍ.
    huwa laysa bi-šāhidin wa-lā bi-qāriʔin.
    He is not one who witnessed [it] or read [it].
Inflection edit
    Inflected forms
Base form بِـ(bi-)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Common Masculine Feminine
First person بِي() بِنَا(binā)
Second person بِكَ(bika) بِكِ(biki) بِكُمَا(bikumā) بِكُمْ(bikum) بِكُنَّ(bikunna)
Third person بِهِ(bihi) بِهَا(bihā) بِهِمَا(bihimā) بِهِمْ(bihim) بِهِنَّ(bihinna)
Derived terms edit

Balti edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب⁩ (transliteration needed)

  1. The second letter of the Balti alphabet, written in the Perso-Arabic script

Burushaski edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب⁩ (transliteration needed)

  1. The fourth letter of the Burushaski alphabet, written in the Perso-Arabic script

Central Kurdish edit

Letter edit

ب / ب‍ / ‍ب‍ / ‍ب⁩ ()

  1. The second letter of the Kurdo-Arabic alphabet. Its name is ⁧با(ba) and it has the sound of English b. It is preceded by ⁧ا(a) and followed by ⁧پ(pi). Equivalent to b in the Kurdo-Latin alphabet.

See also edit

Chinese edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب

  1. The second letter of the Xiao'erjing abjad.

Egyptian Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From the Ottoman Turkish convention.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب (be)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

See also edit

پ(be be-talat noʔaṭ)

Gujarati edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب (be)

  1. The second letter of the Gujarati abjad, equivalent to the Gujarati letter .

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • Previous letter: ⁧ا
  • Next letter: ⁧پ

Hijazi Arabic edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ˈbaːʔ/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /b/

Letter edit

ب (bāʔ)

  1. The second letter of the Arabic alphabet. Its name is ⁧بَاء(bāʔ), and is preceded by ⁧أ(ʔalif) and followed by ⁧ت(tāʔ).
Forms edit
Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • پ(pāʔ)

Etymology 2 edit

Probably from a shortened form of Arabicبَغْيْ(baḡy, to want).

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /bi/

Preposition edit

بِـ (bi)

  1. -ing (prefix indicating the present continuous tense)
    بِيِتْكَلَّم
    biyitkallam
    he is speaking

Etymology 3 edit

From Arabicبِ(bi).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

بِـ (bi)

  1. with, by (a means)
    بِالْمِطْرَقة
    bi-l-miṭraga
    with a mallet

Kashmiri edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب (b)

  1. The second letter of the traditional alphabet chart of Kashmiri.

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • Previous letter: ⁧ا
  • Next letter: ⁧پ(p)

Kazakh edit

Alternative scripts
Arabic ب
Cyrillic Б, б
Latin B, b
Yañalif B, ʙ

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب (b)

  1. The second letter of the Kazakh in Arabic Script. It represents the Cyrillic letter Б.

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

Khowar edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب⁩ (be)

  1. The second letter of the Khowar abjad.

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • Previous letter: ⁧أ
  • Next letter: ⁧پ

Kyrgyz edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /be/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /b/, /w/, /v/

Letter edit

ب (be)

  1. The second letter of the Kyrgyz in Arabic Script. It represents the Cyrillic letter Б

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

Malay edit

 
Malay Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ms

Pronunciation edit

  • (Name of letter) IPA(key): [bɐ]
  • (Phoneme, Syllable initial) IPA(key): [b]
  • (Phoneme, Syllable final) IPA(key): [p̚]

Letter edit

ب / ب‍ / ‍ب‍ / ‍ب

  1. The second letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Arabic script.

See also edit

  • (Arabic script letters) ⁧ا⁩,‎ ⁧ب⁩,‎ ⁧ت⁩,‎ ⁧ة⁩,‎ ⁧ث⁩,‎ ⁧ج⁩,‎ ⁧چ⁩,‎ ⁧ح⁩,‎ ⁧خ⁩,‎ ⁧د⁩,‎ ⁧ذ⁩,‎ ⁧ر⁩,‎ ⁧ز⁩,‎ ⁧س⁩,‎ ⁧ش⁩,‎ ⁧ص⁩,‎ ⁧ض⁩,‎ ⁧ط⁩,‎ ⁧ظ⁩,‎ ⁧ع⁩,‎ ⁧غ⁩,‎ ⁧ڠ⁩,‎ ⁧ف⁩,‎ ⁧ڤ⁩,‎ ⁧ق⁩,‎ ⁧ک⁩,‎ ⁧ݢ⁩,‎ ⁧ل⁩,‎ ⁧م⁩,‎ ⁧ن⁩,‎ ⁧و⁩,‎ ⁧ۏ⁩,‎ ⁧ه⁩,‎ ⁧ء⁩,‎ ⁧ي⁩,‎ ⁧ى⁩,‎ ⁧ڽ[edit]

Northern Kurdish edit

Preposition edit

ب⁩ (bi)

  1. Arabic spelling of bi (by)

Ottoman Turkish edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic and Persian.

Letter edit

ب (be)

  1. The second letter of the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Its name is ⁧با(ba, be).

Preposition edit

ب (be or bi)

  1. with
    بخرد⁩ ― intelligent (literally, “with intelligence”)
  2. at; in
  3. to; into
  4. for; because of

References edit

Pashto edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب (be)

  1. The second letter of the Pashto alphabet.

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • Previous letter: ⁧ا
  • Next letter: ⁧پ

Persian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (phoneme, all dialects) IPA(key): /b/
  • (Letter name)
    • (Classical, Dari) IPA(key): /bɑː/, /beː/
    • (Iran) IPA(key): /bɒː/, /be/
      • (file)
    • (Tajik) IPA(key): /bɔː/, /beː/

Letter edit

ب / ب‍ / ‍ب‍ / ‍ب (be)

  1. The second letter of the Perso-Arabic alphabet. It is preceded by ⁧ا⁩ and followed by ⁧پ⁩. Its name is ⁧به(be) or ⁧بِ(be).

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Persian [script needed] ( /⁠bē⁠/, out, away, forth, also preverbal particle of unclear additional meanings), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bʰe.[1]

In Classical Persian the prefix did not indicate the subjunctive, but had diverse and generally vague meanings depending on the context. The development into a subjunctive marker went hand in hand with the displacement of the simple present by the durative present in ⁧می(mi-). Thereby be- became more and more associated with the subjunctive position and was ultimately grammaticalised in this function. The use of simple present for the subjunctive is now literary, while its use for the indicative is archaic/poetic.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Dari)
    • IPA(key): /bɪ-/
    • IPA(key): (before a syllable with the vowel /ʊ/) /bʊ-/
    • IPA(key): (before a vowel) /bij-/

Prefix edit

ب‍ـ (be-)

  1. Marks the present subjunctive of most verbs.
    می‌خوام پانکراستو بخورم.⁩ ― mi-xâm pânkrâs-et-o bo-xoram.I want to eat your pancreas.
    • 2020, “⁧ماکرون: لوکاشنکو باید برود⁩ [Macron: Lukashenko must go]”, in Euronews Persian[2]:
      واضح است که لوکاشنکو باید برود.
      vâze ast ke lukâšenko bâyad be-ravad.
      It is clear that Lukashenko must go.
  2. Marks the imperative of most verbs.
    این را ببین.⁩ ― in-râ be-bin.Look at this.
    راحت بخواب.⁩ ― râhat be-xâb.Sleep well.
  3. (archaic) Adds an emphatic sense to a verb in the simple past.
Usage notes edit

Unlike the other verbal prefix ⁧می(mi-), the negative prefix ⁧نـ(na-) replaces ⁧ب‍ـ(be-) rather than attaching to it:

  • بگو(be-gu, say!) > ⁧نگو(na-gu, don't say!)

The prefix is not used with most compound verbs whose verbal element is ⁧کردن(kardan) or ⁧شدن(šodan); in these cases, the imperative or subjunctive is marked by the bare present stem. In literary language, it may be also omitted for other verbs.

The verbs ⁧بودن(budan, to be) and ⁧داشتن(dâštan, to have) are irregular: the imperative and subjunctive of the former uses the stem ⁧باش(bâš) without ⁧ب‍ـ(be-), and the latter uses the past participle ⁧داشته(dâšte) in conjunction with ⁧بودن(budan), e.g. ⁧داشته باش(dâšte bâš, have!)

References edit

  1. ^ Thomas Jügel (2013), “The Verbal Particle BE in Middle Persian”, in Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft[1], volume 67, issue 1, pages 29—56

South Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabicبِ(bi).

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

بـ (bi-)

  1. in, at, on
    Synonym:في(fi)
  2. with, by means of
    Synonym:في(fi)

Particle edit

بـ (b-)

  1. prefix indicating the present tense

Tunisian Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabicبِ(bi).

Preposition edit

ب⁩ (b)

  1. with
    نحب قهوة بالحليب⁩ ― nḥib qahwa b-li-ḥlībI like coffee with milk
    ترعش بالخوف⁩ ― turʕuš bi-l-ḵūfShe is shaking with fear

Inflection edit

inflected forms of ب
Base form ب(b)
Personal-pronoun-
including forms
singular plural
m f
1st person بي(biyya) بينا(bīna)
2nd person بيك(bīk) بيكم(bīkum)
3rd person بيه(bīh) بيها(bīha) بيهم(bīhum)

Urdu edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب (be)

  1. The second letter of the Urdu abjad.

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • Previous letter: ⁧ا
  • Next letter: ⁧پ(p)

Uyghur edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب (be)

  1. The third letter of the Uyghur alphabet.

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • Previous letter: ⁧ئە(e)
  • Next letter: ⁧پ(p)

Yoruba edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ب⁩ (b)

  1. The second letter of the Yorùbá alphabet in the Ajami Script.

Forms edit

Isolated form Final form Medial form Initial form
ب ـب ـبـ بـ

See also edit

  • Previous letter: ⁧ا
  • Next letter: ⁧د