See also: Bardo and bardò

English

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Etymology

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Folios 35 and 67 of a manuscript of the Bardo Thodol (Liberation through Hearing during the Intermediate State),[1] often known in the West as the Tibetan Book of the Dead. The text is intended as a guide through the after-death experiences that a person’s consciousness has in the bardo.

Borrowed from Tibetan བར་དོ (bar do), from བར (bar, interval) + དོ (do, two),[2] in the sense of an interval between two states.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bardo (plural bardos)

  1. (Tibetan Buddhism) The state of existence between death and subsequent reincarnation.
    • 1863, Emil Schlagintweit, “Details Characteristic of the Religion of the People”, in Buddhism in Tibet: Illustrated by Literary Documents and Objects of Religious Worship. With an Account of the Buddhist Systems Preceding It in India. [...] With a Folio Atlas of Twenty Plates and Twenty Tables of Native Print in the Text, Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus; London: Trübner & Co., →OCLC, page 109:
      According to the belief of the Tibetans, that is considered an untimely death, which, in opposition to the ordinary course of nature, is accelerated by evil spirits, such as Sringan, Dechad, Jungpo, and others. As a consequence of premature decease, the "Bardo," is prolongated. This is the middle state between the death and the new re-birth, which does not follow immediately, but there exists an interval, which is shorter for the good than for the bad. The prolongation of this intermediate state is considered as a punishment caused by evil spirits who have only power over sinful men.
    • 1996, Victoria LePage, “The Perfection of the Shortest Path”, in Shambhala: The Fascinating Truth behind the Myth of Shangri-La, 1st Quest edition, Wheaton, Ill.: The Theosophical Publishing House, →ISBN, page 95:
      The soul's gradual progress to God in terms of a spiralling pathway up the side of the cosmic mountain, from one spiritual station to the next, is an image common to almost all of the world's mystical systems; but few mention the direct path from the base of the mountain straight up to the summit. Even the Bardo Thodol mentions the direct path only once, and then glancingly, confining itself solely to a description of the soul's circuitous afterlife journey through the heaven-worlds. The shortcut for heroes that bypasses the heaven-worlds or bardos and takes them straight to the divine world—in one lifetime, so it is said—is so well guarded in religious literature that the relevant Tibetan Buddhist texts are written in the "twilight language," a cipher that can be understood only with the help of revelation.
    • 1998, Susanne Paolo, “Prologue”, in Bardo (The Brittingham Prize in Poetry), Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, →ISBN, page xiii:
      The bardo in Tibetan means an intermediate state, most specifically the one after death when your soul wanders through the heavens and hell, trying to avoid rebirth into samsara—the realm of the material—and achieve nirvana or Buddhahood. [] Like everything the bardo journey takes place both inside you and outside. Like everything it's both a metaphor and not. I was born in the fifties in a nation suspended in the bardo state between a war a decade over and the hellsmoke light of a new war pulling in the East.
    • 2013, Sogyal Rinpoche, “The Near-Death Experience”, in Lee W. Bailey, Jenny Yates, editors, The Near-Death Experience: A Reader, Routledge, →ISBN, page 173:
      Some writers have suggested the near-death experience expresses the stages of the dissolution process in the bardo of dying. It is premature, I feel, to try to link the near-death experience too precisely with the bardo descriptions, []
    • 2014, C. J. Cala, “Babble On”, in Four Different Faces, [s.l.]: C. J. Cala, →ISBN, page 151:
      Possessing both omniprescence and omniscience, they now stared beyond the abyss of astral space—beyond the six bardos of Tibetan Buddhism—spreading their karmic seeds across the infinite coordinates of the cosmological Minkowski continuum.
    • 2015, Evan Thompson, “Dying: What Happens when We Die?”, in Waking, Dreaming, Being: Self and Consciousness in Neuroscience, Meditation, and Philosophy, New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page 292:
      "Bardo," as noted, means in-between state. So whenever we're in between two states, no matter what the scale, we're in a bardo state. These two states could be living and dying or being awake and being asleep, but they could also be the just-past moment of thought and the moment to come. Thus "bardo" includes the gap between the cessation of one moment of thought and the arising of the next moment.
    • 2015 January, Jan Jarboe Russell, “The All-American Camp”, in The Train to Crystal City: FDR’s Secret Prisoner Exchange Program and America’s only Family Internment Camp during World War II, New York, N.Y.: Scribner, →ISBN, page 233:
      For internees the war was experienced in exile. The Buddhists in Crystal City understood it as a bardo state—a provisional period between the lives before their confinement, and the dream of freedom after the war.

Translations

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References

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  1. ^ Published in Kazi Dawa Samdup, transl., Marguerite La Fuente, transl. (1933) W[alter] Y[eeling] Evans-Wentz, editor, Bardo Thödol, le livre des morts tibétain, ou les expériences d'après la mort dans le plan du “Bardo”, suivant la version anglaise du lama Kazi Dawa Samdup, éditeé par [...] W. Y. Evans-Wentz, [...] Traduction française de Marguerite La Fuente, [...] [Bardo Thodol: The Tibetan Book of the Dead, or Experiences after Death in the Plan of “Bardo”, According to the English Version of the Lama Kazi Dawa Samdup, edited by [...] W. Y. Evans-Wentz, [...] French Translation by Marguerite La Fuente, [...]], Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, →OCLC.
  2. ^ bardo”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.

Further reading

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Anagrams

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Esperanto

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Esperanto Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia eo

Etymology

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Ultimately from Latin bardus.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbardo/
  • Audio:(file)
  • Hyphenation: bar‧do

Noun

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bardo (accusative singular bardon, plural bardoj, accusative plural bardojn)

  1. bard

Galician

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Etymology 1

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From a pre-Roman substrate of Iberia.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bardo m (plural bardos)

  1. hedge; fence
    Synonyms: barda, bardal, sebe

Etymology 2

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From Irish bard.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bardo m (plural bardos)

  1. poet (of a certain rank); bard
    Synonym: vate

References

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  • bardo” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • bardo 'vate'” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.


Italian

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbar.do/
  • Rhymes: -ardo
  • Hyphenation: bàr‧do

Etymology 1

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From Latin bardus, from Gaulish, from Proto-Celtic *bardos, from Proto-Indo-European *gʷerdʰh₁ós, derived from the root *gʷerH- (to praise).

Noun

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bardo m (plural bardi)

  1. bard (ancient Celtic poet and singer)
  2. (by extension) poet
    Synonyms: aedo, cantore, poeta, rapsodo, (literary) vate
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

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bardo

  1. first-person singular present indicative of bardare

Further reading

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  • bardo in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Anagrams

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Latin

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Etymology 1

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Pronunciation

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Adjective

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bārdō

  1. dative/ablative singular masculine/neuter of bārdus

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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bardō m

  1. dative/ablative singular of bardus

References

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  • bardo in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • bardo”, in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly

Lower Sorbian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *bьrdo.

Noun

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bardo n inan

  1. comb (in a loom)

Further reading

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  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928) “bardo”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999) “bardo”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Old Polish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bьrdo. First attested in the 15th century.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /baːrdɔ/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /bɒrdɔ/

Noun

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bardo n

  1. reed, weaving comb
    • 1874-1891 [15th century], Rozprawy i Sprawozdania z Posiedzeń Wydziału Filologicznego Akademii Umiejętności[1], [2], [3], volume XXIV, page 364:
      Perticam fullonis strvną knapska, bardv
      [Perticam fullonis struna knapska, bardo]

Descendants

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  • Masurian: bárdo
  • Polish: bardo, Bardo

References

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Polish

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Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish bardo.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bardo n

  1. (obsolete) reed, weaving comb
    Synonyms: grzebień tkacki, płocha, przybijaczka

Declension

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Further reading

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  • bardo in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “bardo”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • Danuta Lankiewicz (14.06.2016) “BARDO”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century]
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “bardo”, in Słownik języka polskiego
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “bardo”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861
  • J. Karłowicz, A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1900), “bardo”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 1, Warsaw, page 98

Portuguese

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin bardus, from Gaulish, from Proto-Celtic *bardos.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bardo m (plural bardos)

  1. bard
    Synonyms: menestrel, escaldo, rapsodo, trovador, vate, músico, poeta, cantor

Spanish

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Etymology

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From Latin bardus, from Gaulish [Term?], from Proto-Celtic *bardos.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈbaɾdo/ [ˈbaɾ.ð̞o]
  • Rhymes: -aɾdo
  • Syllabification: bar‧do

Noun

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bardo m (plural bardos)

  1. bard
  2. conflict

Further reading

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