Appendix:Portuguese pronunciation

This page is a guide for reading and adding Portuguese IPA pronunciations. Unless noted otherwise, the information here refers only to Standard European Portuguese and Standard Brazilian Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology.

PhonemesEdit

The transcriptions in the second column are non-canonical and should be replaced by those in the first one.

canonical
transcription
other broad
transcriptions
orthographical
representation
narrow
transcriptions
notes
/a/ a, á, à [a], [ä]
/ɐ/ /ə/, /ɜ/, /ʌ/ a, â [ə], [ɜ], [ɐ]
/ɐ̃/ /ə̃/, /ɜ̃/ ã, â, am, an, âm, ân [ə̃], [ɜ̃], [ɐ̃]
[ə̃ⁿ], [ɜ̃ⁿ], [ɐ̃ⁿ]
[əə̯̃], [ɜə̯̃], [ɐə̯̃]
[əə̯̃ⁿ], [ɜə̯̃ⁿ], [ɐə̯̃ⁿ]
/ɛ/ e, é [ɛ]
/e/ e, ê [e]
/ẽ/ em, en, ên, êm, ém [ẽ], [ẽⁿ], [eə̯̃], [eə̯̃ⁿ] the /j̃/ that follows /ẽ/ in some cases needs to be transcribed separately Some speakers of European Portuguese use /ɛ̃/
/ɨ/ /ɯ/, /ə/ e, i [ɯ̽] European Portuguese
/i/ /ɪ/ i, e [i], [ɪ]
/ĩ/ i, in, im [ĩ]
/ɔ/ o, ó [ɔ]
/o/ o, ô [o]
/õ/ õ, om, on, ôm, ôn [õ], [õⁿ], [oə̯̃]
[oə̯̃ⁿ], [õʊ̯̃], [õw̃]
/u/ /ʊ/ o, u, ú [u], [ʊ] should not be used for /w/ [y] Only in the Azores and some dialects of European Portuguese. [ø] in the Azores and some European Dialects.
/ũ/ um, un, úm, úm [ũ], [ũⁿ], [uw̃]
/m/ m [m]
/n/ n [n̪]
/ɲ/ /j̃/ nh [ɲ], [j̃], [ɲ̟]
/p/ p [p]
/b/ b [b], [β] [β] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t/ t [t̪]
/d/ d [d̪], [ð] [ð] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/k/ c, qu, k [k]
/ɡ/ /ɡ/ g, gu [ɡ], [ɣ] [ɣ] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t͡ʃ/ /tʃ/ t, tch, ch [t͡ʃʷ], [t͡ɕʷ] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /t/ ch in some dialects of European Portuguese.
/d͡ʒ/ /dʒ/ d, dj [d͡ʒʷ], [d͡ʑʷ] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /d/
/f/ f [f]
/v/ v [v]
/s/ s, ss, ç, z, x [s]
/z/ s, z, x [z]
/ʃ/ x, ch, s [ʃʷ], [ɕʷ]
/ʒ/ j, g, s [ʒʷ], [ʑʷ]
/ʁ/ /r/, /h/, /x/, /χ/, /ř/ r, rr [x], [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], [h], [χ], [ɦ]
[ɹ], [ɻ], [ɾ], [χ]
/ɾ/ /r/ r [ɾ]
/l/ l [l], [ɫ]
/ʎ/ lh [ʎ], [ʎ̟]
/w/ /u/, /ʊ/, /u̯/, /ʊ̯/, /ʷ/ u, l, o, ü [w], [u̯], [ʊ̯]
/w̃/ /w/, /u/, /ʊ/, /u̯/, /ʊ̯/
/ũ/, /ʊ̃/, /ũ̯/, /ʊ̯̃/
o [w̃], [ũ̯], [ʊ̯̃] usually considered an allophone of /w/ following a nasal vowel
/j/ /i/, /i̯/, /ɪ̯/, /ɪ/, /ʲ/ i [j], [i̯], [ɪ̯]
/j̃/ /j/, /i/, /i̯/, /ɪ̯/, /ɪ/
/ĩ/, /ĩ̯/, /ɪ̯̃/, /ɪ̃/
e, i, ∅ [j̃], [ĩ̯], [ɪ̯̃] usually considered an allophone of /j/ following a nasal vowel

IssuesEdit

Alternative pronunciationsEdit

context standard treatment example
in European Portuguese, /ɐj/ alternates with /ej/ each case is listed individually queijo/ˈkɐj.ʒu/, /ˈkej.ʒu/
in most variations of Brazilian Portuguese, there are two ways to pronounce the prefix "des-" each case is listed individually desligarIPA(key): /dez.li.ˈɡa(ʁ)/, /d͡ʒis.liˈɡa(ʁ)/
unstressed /i/, /u/ sometimes become /j/, /w/ when followed by another vowel, especially in relaxed, less formal pronunciation each case is listed individually águia/ˈa.ɡi.ɐ/, /ˈa.ɡjɐ/
in extra-careful Brazilian pronunciation, word-final vowel reduction is sometimes undone; usually /ɐ/ becomes /a/, more rarely /u/ becomes /o/ and /i/ becomes /e/ not indicated casa/ˈka.zɐ/, not /ˈka.za/
/lj/, /nj/ become /ʎ/, /ɲ/ in careless pronunciation only indicated when it is relatively common família/fa.ˈmi.li.ɐ/, /fa.ˈmi.ljɐ/, /fa.ˈmi.ʎɐ/
mid-word /o/ and /e/ sometimes become /u/ and /i/ in Brazilian Portuguese, often due to vowel harmony each case is listed individually dormir/doʁ.ˈmi(ʁ)/, /duʁ.ˈmi(ʁ)/
for some Brazilian speakers, a vowel becomes slightly nasalised preceding a nasal consonant not indicated dono/ˈdo.nu/, not /ˈdõ.nu/
semivowels between vowels are geminated not indicated caia/ˈkaj.ɐ/, not /ˈkaj.jɐ/
/k/ and /ɡ/ followed by /w/ may be pronounced as a rounded consonant not indicated quando/ˈkwɐ̃.du/, not /ˈkʷɐ̃.du/
/e/, /i/ is sometimes dropped from words with the sequence esc- not indicated escudo/iʃ.ˈku.du/, not */ˈʃku.du/

Dropped and intrusive phonemesEdit

context standard treatment example
in more careful Brazilian pronunciations, /n/ is added between a nasal vowel and a consonant during gerunds not indicated deixando/de(j)ˈʃɐ̃du/, not /de(j)ˈʃɐ̃ndu/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /j/ is dropped from /ej/ before certain consonants parentheses manteiga/mɐ̃.ˈte(j).ɡɐ/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /d/ is sometimes replaced with /n/ at the end of gerunds not indicated andando/ɐ̃ˈdɐ̃du/, not /ɐ̃ˈdɐ̃nu/
in less formal pronunciations, /j/ is dropped before /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ parentheses caixa/ˈka(j).ʃɐ/
for some speakers of European Portuguese, /j/ is added before /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ parentheses seja/ˈsɐ(j).ʒɐ/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, final /ʁ/ is dropped from certain verb forms parentheses fazer/fa.ˈze(ʁ)/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /j/ is usually added before stressed, word-final /s/ that is not a desinence parentheses francês/fɾɐ̃.ˈse(j)s/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /j̃/ is added after /ẽ/ sometimes not indicated entrar/ẽ.ˈtɾa(ʁ)/, not /ẽj̃.ˈtɾa(ʁ)/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /w̃/ is added after /õ/ sometimes not indicated bomba/ˈbõ.bɐ/, not /ˈbõw̃.bɐ/
in careless pronunciation, /j/ after a palatal is dropped not indicated régio/ˈʁɛ.ʒi.u/, /ˈʁɛ.ʒju/
/w/ may or may not be maintained in the diphthong /ow/ parentheses sou/ˈso(w)/

StressEdit

  • Monosyllabic words should include a stress mark if they are stressed in sentences (si/ˈsi/ but se/si/).
  • Secondary stress marks are optional, but recommended.

SandhiEdit

Sandhi should not be noted in pronunciations of individual words, as it is entirely predictable.

NotesEdit

  • Due to the recentness of this page’s creation, not every entry conforms to its guidelines. Users are encouraged to correct nonstandard IPA transcriptions, tag them with {{attention|pt|nonstandard pronunciation}}, or inform another user about them.
  • Some symbols are used in broad transcriptions even though they are usually considered allophones of another phoneme. The reasons for this are: they are traditionally used in broad transcriptions by other resources; preventing users from sounding foreign when not using that allophone sounds incorrect; in exceptional instances they are a distinct phoneme.