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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

A reduced form of cieti, the adveribal form of ciets ‎(hard).

PronunciationEdit

(file)

AdverbEdit

ciet

  1. (usually with the copula būt; similar to German zu) closed, shut, sometimes also metaphorically
    acis ciet — eyes closed
    muti ciet! — mouth closed! (= shut up!)
    logi un durvis ir ciet — the doors and windows are closed
    skapis ir ciet — the cabinet is closed
    pasts jau ir ciet — the post office is already closed
    labā auss ir ciet — the right ear is closed (= full of wax/plugged (as from a change in altitude during a flight, etc.))
    elpa ciet — the breath(ing) is closed (= difficult, heavy)
    “jau ciet!” viņa brīnījās, redzēdama aizlipināto aploksni — “already closed!” she marveled, seeing the sealed envelope
    tagad tikai mutītes ciet, mani mazie — now just (keep) your little mouths shut, my little ones
    līdz vilcienam divdesmit minūtes laika, bet kase vēl ciet — only twenty minutes till the train (departs), and the counter (is) still closed
    pēc lielā sala upe būs ciet — after a big frost the river will be closed (= frozen)
    skolas dedzinātājs ciet! — the school arsonist is closed (= has been arrested)
  2. imperfective counterpart of the prefix aiz-, indicating that the object of the verb was closed, shut, or filled
    taisīt durvis ciet — to shut the door
    vērt vārtus ciet — to close the gates
    bāzt caurumu ciet — to close, fill up the hole
    Jānis nesaprata, ko darīt: iet prom savā istabā, slēgt ciet kancelejas durvis? — Jānis didn't know what to do: go away to his room, lock the office door shut?
    pirksti nervozi taustījās ap mēteļa sprādzi, bet ciet to dabūt viņam tomēr neizdevās — his fingers fumbled nervously around the coat buckle, but he was unable to get it shut (= to buckle it up)
  3. imperfective counterpart of the prefix sa-, indicating that the object of the verb was caught, captured, or bound
    Artūrs skaļi noprasīja: “stāvi, grāb tikai kādu meiteni ciet — Artūrs asked loud: “stop, just grab some girl”
    “ķer tik medūzas ciet!” kapteinis pamācīja — “just catch the jellyfish!” the captain admonished
    tikai tagad paspējis izrauties sievai, kas to visu laiku turēja ciet — only now did he manage to escape his wife, who kept him under control (lit. captured) all the time
  4. used together with the prefixes aiz- or sa-, to reinforce their meanings
    aizsist grāmatu ciet — to slam the book shut
    aizvērt acis ciet — to close one's eyes shut
    saņemt ciet — to arrest (lit. to take shut, captured)
    sniegi aizvelk ceļu ciet, kā lai tālāk iet? — the snow had filled, covered the road (lit. pulled the road shut), how are we to proceed now?
    Ozols man zvilnēja blakām, ceļgalus rokām satvēris ciet — Ozols was sprawling near me, clutching his knees with his hands
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