Contents

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *kietas, from *keitas, from Proto-Indo-European *key-(to set in motion, to move) with an extra (adjectivizing) suffix -to-s. A parallel form with -tyo-s (*keityas, *kietyas) yielded Latvian ciešs(tight). Meaning change: “moving” > “happy, safe, healthy” > “strong, rigid” > “hard.” Cognates include Lithuanian kíetas, Sudovian kit, Old Prussian keytaro(hail, greeting), Proto-Slavic *čitь, *čitjь (Russian dialectal читый(čítyj, not drunk, not having drunk), Serbo-Croatian čȉt(healthy, whole), Slovene čìt, čít(undamaged)).[1]

PronunciationEdit

(file)

AdjectiveEdit

ciets (def. cietais, comp. cietāks, sup. viscietākais; irreg. adv. cieti, ciet)

  1. (physics) solid (having stable form)
    cieta viela, cietviela‎ ― solid substance
    cieti ķermeņi‎ ― solid bodies
    cietais kurināmais‎ ― solid fuel
    ciets agregātstāvoklis‎ ― solid state
  2. hard, solid, rigid (difficult to split, crush, bend, etc.)
    ciets minerāls, metāls‎ ― hard, solid mineral, metal
    ciets tērauds, granīts‎ ― hard, solid steel, granite
    ciets diamants, asmens‎ ― hard, solid diamond, blade
    ciets zīmulis‎ ― hard pencil (with lead that wears out slowly)
    ciets kā akmens‎ ― hard, solid as rock
    visi akmeņi nebūt nav vienādi cieti‎ ― not all stones are equally hard
  3. hard, solid (having a layer of rock, or snow, or ice)
    cieta augsne, grunts, pļava‎ ― hard soil, ground, meadow
    ciets māls‎ ― hard clay
    ciets pamats‎ ― hard, soild foundation
    uzplēsti seši hektāri cietajā stepes zemē‎ ― six hectares of hard steppe land (were) broken up, plowed
  4. (of fabric, cloth) hard, solid (strong, difficult to fold or bend; made of such fabric, cloth)
    ciets audekls‎ ― solid canvas
    cieta aitāda‎ ― hard sheepskin
    ciets zābaks‎ ― hard boot
    viņš nēsāja uzkreklus ar cietām apkaklītēm‎ ― he wore a dickey with a hard collar
  5. (of furniture, cushions, etc.) hard (not soft, resistant to pressure)
    ciets dīvāns, spilvens‎ ― hard sofa, pillow
    cieta gulta, atzveltne‎ ― hard bed, back (of chair)
    tas krēsls man par cietu‎ ― that chair is too hard for me
  6. (of body parts, tissue) hard (difficult to bend or break)
    citie audi‎ ― hard tissue
    ciets kauls‎ ― hard bone
    cieta āda‎ ― hard skin
    cietās aukslējas‎ ― hard palate
    rokas bija pilnas cietu tulznu‎ ― (his) hands were full of hard blisters
  7. (of hands, their skin) hard, hardened (having strong, harsh skin)
    cietas rokas‎ ― hard hands
    cieta plauksta‎ ― hard palm (of hand)
  8. (of hair) thick, strong
    cieta bārda‎ ― thick beard
    cietas ūsas‎ ― thick mustache
  9. (of plants) hard (difficult to bend, squeeze, trim, prune)
    ciets koks, ozols‎ ― hard tree, oak
    ciets stumbrs, zars‎ ― hard trunk, branch
    ciets grauds‎ ― hard grain
    šo koku koksne pusotras reizes cietāka par dzelzi‎ ― the wood of these trees is one and a half times harder than iron
  10. (of food) hard (difficult to bite and chew)
    cieta gaļa, maize‎ ― hard meat, bread
    ciets siers‎ ― hard cheese
    cieta ola‎ ― hard (boiled) egg
  11. (of character, will; of people, their behavior) hard, tough (strong, determined, uncompromising, ruthless)
    ciets raksturs‎ ― hard, tough character
    cieta daba‎ ― hard, tough nature
    cieta sirds‎ ― hard heart (i.e., cruel, ruthless)
    viņš bija ciets cilvēks‎ ― he was a hard, tough man (lit. person)
    ciets skatiens‎ ― hard look
    viņa sejas izteiksme bija cieta un nepielūdzama‎ ― his facial expression was hard and relentless
  12. (of faces, their features) hard, stiff
    kad pēc vēja brāzmas viņš pacēla seju augstāk, tā bija kļuvusi pelēki cieta ka sastingusi zeme‎ ― when after the wind gust he raised his face, it had become gray hard, stiff like frozen ground
  13. (of thoughts, ideas, promisess) hard, definite, clear, inalterable (syn. ciešs)
    ciets solījums‎ ― solemn promise
    kluss vīru pulks... viss gvarda vārdos teikts; vien cietam zvērestam ceļ katrs roku‎ ― the regiment of men (was) silent... all the words of the guard (oath) (were) said; every hand rose with one solemn oath
  14. (colloquial) rigid, definite, determined (which cannot be arbitrarily changed)
    cieta alga‎ ― rigid wage, salary
    cietas cenas‎ ― rigid prices
  15. (of movements) hard, strong, determined
    mierigiem, cietiem soļiem viņš nāca tuvāk‎ ― with calm, strong steps he came closer
    mātes skāviens ir karsts, ciets, izmisīgs‎ ― mother's hug is warm, strong, desperate
  16. (of sleep) tight (syn. ciešs)
    visa nakts tad bija pavadīta cietā, veselīgā miegā‎ ― the whole night was spent in tight, healthy sleep
  17. (of water) hard (which contains salts, usually of calcium and magnesium)
    ciets ūdens mazgāšanai nav derīgs‎ ― hard water is not appropriate for washing
  18. (of wind, weather) strong, sharp
    jūra bija balta un ziemeļu vējš kļuva aizvien cietāks‎ ― the sea was white and the northern wind became increasingly harder, sharper
    ja priedes tā šūpojas, tad ir vētra, ciets laiks, kā saka tēvs‎ ― if the pines are swaying like that, then there is a storm, hard weather, as father said / used to say
  19. (adverbial form; of people, objects) tight(ly) close, close together (syn. ciešs, cieši)
    cieti citu pie citas‎ ― very close one by the other

DeclensionEdit

Usage notesEdit

The adverbial form cieti is the one normally used adverbially; the shorter form ciet is more frequently found as a predicative adverb meaning “closed”, “shut” (cf. German zu) or to mark imperfective status with certain verbs (e.g., iet ciet with respect to perfective aiziet).

SynonymsEdit

  • (of "hard, solid, rigid"): stings, stingrs, stīvs
  • (of "thick"; "concentrated (look)"; "strong (movement)"; "sleep"; "close together"): ciešs

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “ciets”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7