- Visier Sanyu, A history of Nagas and Nagaland (1996, →ISBN, page 51 (zu, rice beer)
- Robert Gordon Latham, Elements of Comparative Philology, page 31 (Angami wordlist) (zu, water)
- The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (James Richardson Logan), volume 10 (1970) (Angami zu, water; mentions dzu)
From Proto-Basque *zu, originally a second-person plural pronoun. Over time, it came to be used as a polite second-person singular pronoun; while hi went from being a general second-person singular pronoun to a strictly informal one. In all the written record it appears as a singular pronoun, but it might have survived as a plural pronoun up to the nineteenth century in parts of Biscay.
- Second-person singular personal pronoun; you
- ^ “zu” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk
- zů (obsolete)
From a spelling merger of two interrelated adpreps: 1.) Middle High German ze, from Old High German za, zi, from Proto-Germanic *ta; and 2.) Middle High German zuo, from Old High German zuo, from Proto-Germanic *tō. A distinction between both words has widely been retained in dialects, and also to some degree in modern spoken German (see pronunciation section below). Cognate with Silesian German zu (contractions with the definite article: zum m or n, zur f); Dutch te, toe; Old Saxon tō; English to, too.
- IPA(key): /t͡suː/ (standard)
- IPA(key): /t͡sə/ (variant in colloquial speech; chiefly with infinitives (particle) and adjectives (meaning “too”))
- Rhymes: -uː
zu (+ dative)
- to, towards (indicates directionality)
- zum Bahnhof ― to the train station
- with respect to; regarding
- Zu Punkt 1 möchte ich bemerken, dass...
- With respect to item 1, let me remark that...
- along with; with (accompanying (the main thing in question))
- Wasser zum Essen trinken ― to drink water with one’s meal
- at, on (indicates location)
- zu Hause ― at home
- at (indicates time)
- zur richtigen Zeit ― at the right time
- zu Beginn ― at the beginning
- by, in, on, at (indicates mode (of transportation, speech, etc.))
- zu Pferd ― on horseback
- (with a verb) for; (with a noun) as, by way of (for the purpose of)
- for (in honor of, or directed towards the celebration or event of)
- into (indicates transition into another form or substance)
- as, for, to be (to take on the role of)
- to (used to indicate ratios)
- at (denotes a price or rate)
- (with infinitives of verbs) to
- etwas zu essen ― something to eat
- (with adjectives and adverbs) too (excessively)
- zu schnell ― too fast
- (by extension, slang) An intensifier.
- Dieses Essen ist zu lecker! ― This food tastes so good!
- towards; at
- (somewhat informal) shut; closed; locked
- Synonym: geschlossen
- Antonyms: auf, offen, geöffnet
- ahead, on (along, forwards (continuing an action))
(intensifier): Always stressed. Compare English so (“very much”).
zu (indeclinable, predicative only)
- (somewhat informal) shut, closed (made inaccessible or impassable; not open)
- Synonym: geschlossen
- Das Geschäft war zu.
- The shop was closed.
- Die Tür muss aus Brandschutzgründen immer zu sein.
- This door must be shut at all times for reasons of fire safety.
- Die Tür ist zu, ich komm nicht rein.
- The door is locked, I can’t get in there.
- closed (not operating or conducting trade)
- done up (fastened)
- (slang) hammered; very drunk
- zu haben
- “zu” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
- Friedrich Kluge (1883), “zu”, in , John Francis Davis, transl., Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, published 1891
- J. A. Z'Graggen, 1980, A comparative word list of the Northern Adelbert Range Languages, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, p.80, Canberra: Pacific Linguistics
Reduced form of zou, from Middle High German zuo, from Old High German zuo, from Proto-Germanic *tō.
zu (+ dative)
- at, in
- Ech wunnen zu Réiden. ― I live in Redange.
- with respect to, regarding
- for (the purpose of)
- Dat Blietchen ass nëmmen zu denger Informatioun. ― The leaflet is just for your information.
- (rare) to, towards
- The adverbial form of zu, used e.g. in compound verbs, is zou.
- With the singular forms of the definite article, zu may contract to zum (zu dem) and zur (zu der).
- (when stressed) Alternative form of ze (“too”)
- Dat ass net nëmme vill, dat ass zu vill.
- It’s not just much, it’s too much.
- Nonstandard spelling of zū.
- Nonstandard spelling of zú.
- Nonstandard spelling of zǔ.
- Nonstandard spelling of zù.
- English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.
Compare German zu, Dutch te, English to.
- Romanization of 𒍪 (zu)