Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Dutch hanthaven, from Middle High German hanthaben, itself a calque from Old French maintenir, from Vulgar Latin manūteneō. Likely based also on Middle Dutch handhave (handle). Cognate with German handhaben.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈɦɑntˌɦaː.və(n)/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: hand‧ha‧ven

Verb edit


  1. (transitive) to enforce, to maintain, to uphold
  2. (transitive) to persevere with, to persist with/in
  3. (reflexive) to remain in charge, to remain in place

Inflection edit

Inflection of handhaven (weak)
infinitive handhaven
past singular handhaafde
past participle gehandhaafd
infinitive handhaven
gerund handhaven n
present tense past tense
1st person singular handhaaf handhaafde
2nd person sing. (jij) handhaaft handhaafde
2nd person sing. (u) handhaaft handhaafde
2nd person sing. (gij) handhaaft handhaafde
3rd person singular handhaaft handhaafde
plural handhaven handhaafden
subjunctive sing.1 handhave handhaafde
subjunctive plur.1 handhaven handhaafden
imperative sing. handhaaf
imperative plur.1 handhaaft
participles handhavend gehandhaafd
1) Archaic.

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Afrikaans: handhaaf
  • Indonesian: penegakan (semantic loan)