Brunei Malay edit

Etymology edit

From raja +‎ ke- -an. Either cognate with or derived from Malay kerajaan.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /kə.ra.d͡ʒa.ʔan/
  • (contraction) IPA(key): /kra.d͡ʒa.ʔan/

Noun edit

kerajaan

  1. government of a country or state

Indonesian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Affixed raja +‎ ke- -an, from Malay kerajaan, from Classical Malay kerajaan (royal, become king).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [kəraˈd͡ʒaʔan]
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: kê‧ra‧ja‧an

Noun edit

kêrajaan (plural kerajaan-kerajaan, first-person possessive kerajaanku, second-person possessive kerajaanmu, third-person possessive kerajaannya)

  1. kingdom
    1. A realm having a king and/or queen as its actual or nominal sovereign.
    2. (taxonomy) A rank in the classification of organisms, below domain and above phylum; a taxon at that rank.
      Synonym: alam (Standard Malay)
  2. monarchy: a government in which sovereignty is embodied within a single, today usually hereditary head of state (whether as a figurehead or as a powerful ruler).
    Synonym: monarki
  3. (obsolete) kingship

Coordinate terms edit

Derived terms edit

Adjective edit

kêrajaan

  1. royal: of or relating to a monarch or their family.
    Synonym: diraja (Standard Malay)

Verb edit

kêrajaan

  1. (obsolete) to become a king
    Jika ia kerajaan, tiada akan sempurna negeri ini.If he becomes a king, this nation will never be perfect.

Usage notes edit

The word is part of false friends between Standard Malay and Indonesian due to shared etymology. The Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore usage can be seen in Malay kerajaan.

Further reading edit

Malay edit

Etymology edit

Affixation of raja +‎ ke- -an.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

kerajaan (Jawi spelling کراجاءن, plural kerajaan-kerajaan, informal 1st possessive kerajaanku, 2nd possessive kerajaanmu, 3rd possessive kerajaannya)

  1. (Brunei, Malaysia) government (an organisation which has the power to enact and legislate laws within its area of jurisdiction)
    Synonym: pemerintah
  2. kingdom

Usage notes edit

This word is part of false friends between Standard Malay and Indonesian due to shared etymology. The Indonesian usage can be seen in Indonesian kerajaan.

  • The government sense prevails in Malaysia and Brunei due to the two countries' monarchic governments.
  • In Singapore, foreign governments can be referred as either kerajaan or pemerintah depending on their form of government. The Singaporean government being a republic is always referred to as pemerintah, which has no monarchic connotations.
  • In Indonesia, kerajaan is used in the sense of a kingdom only. Governments are always translated as pemerintah, which has no monarchic connotations.

Descendants edit

  • Indonesian: kerajaan

Further reading edit