See also: nya, NYA, nyā, and -nya-

Indonesian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Malay -nya, from Proto-Malayic *ña, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *ña, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *ña, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ni-a, from Proto-Austronesian *ni-a (compare Tagalog niya (third person pronoun clitic), Javanese -ne (third person pronoun clitic)).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-nya

  1. (dative) to him, to her, to it
  2. (objective after preposition) him, her, it
  3. (accusative) him, her, it
  4. his, her, its (attributive: belonging to him / her / it)
    Ini rumahnya.This is his / her / its house.
  5. (emphasis) as a stress to a word or sentence.
    Bersihnya ruangan ini!
    How clean is this room!

Usage notes edit

The usage of this suffix is very diverse, but not all words could take -nya for some senses.

  • -nya as a third-person singular possessive (possession): Budi mengambil makanannya di kedai. means makanan is owned by Budi.
  • -nya as a third-person singular objective: Budi menemaninya ke kedai. (active), or Ani ditemaninya ke kedai. (passive). -nya works as a replacement of Ani in the former and Budi in the latter sentence.
  • -nya as a definite marker: Budi, makanannya mana?. The definite marker means that the food in question is a specific food, not just any food. Similar to the definite article the in "Budi, where is the food?"
  • -nya as a possessed case: Ini makanannya Budi, bukan makanannya Ani., Makanannya Budi mana? considered redundant but often acceptable in standard grammar, common in casual speech. Compare his genitive in early Modern English.
  • -nya as a verb nominalizer: Kamu ambilnya jangan begitu. The -nya here changes the verb ambil into a noun verb. This usage is more common in casual speech.

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (2010–), “*ia₁”, in The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary

Further reading edit

Kambera edit

Pronoun edit

-nya

  1. third person singular dative enclitic

Particle edit

-nya

  1. continuative aspect enclitic
    Laku-nggu-nya.
    I am going.

See also edit

References edit

  • Marian Klamer (2000), “Continuative Aspect and the Dative Clitic in Kambera”, in Mark Campana, Ileana Paul, Vivianne Phillips, Lisa Travis, editors, Formal Issues in Austronesian Linguistics (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory; 49), Springer Netherlands, →ISBN, page 58

Malay edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayic *ña, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *ña, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *ña, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ni-a, from Proto-Austronesian *ni-a.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-nya (Jawi spelling⁩)

  1. (dative) to him, to her, to it
  2. (objective after preposition) him, her, it
  3. (accusative) him, her, it
  4. his, her, its (attributive: belonging to him / her / it)
    rumahnyahis/her/its house
  5. (emphasis) as a stress to a word or sentence.
    Wah, cantiknya bunga ini!
    Wow, this flower is so beautiful!

Usage notes edit

When used to address God, a capital letter and hyphen is used.

  1. dari-Nyafrom Them (God)

Descendants edit

  • Indonesian: -nya
  • Petjo: -nja

See also edit