From *piek- (whence ordinal piektais, q.v.), with k > c because of the following plural -i, extended to this previously undeclinable stem by analogy; from Proto-Baltic *penk-, from Proto-Indo-European *pénkʷe (five), a word about which several theories have been proposed (old word for “thumb;” “hand (= five fingers together);” *pen-kʷe “and pen”, perhaps from kʷetwores pen-kʷe “four and pen (= 1, one?).” Cognates include Lithuanian penkì, Sudovian pank (< *penk-), Old Prussian penckts (fifth), Proto-Slavic *pętь (Russian пять (pjatʹ), Belarusian пяць (pjacʹ), Ukrainian п'ять (pʺjatʹ), Bulgarian пет (pet), Czech pět, Slovak päť, Polish pięć), Proto-Germanic *fimf (< *pempe; Gothic 𐍆𐌹𐌼𐍆 (fimf), Old High German funf, finf, German fünf, Old English fīf, English five), Hittite paⁿta, Sanskrit पञ्चन् (pañcan), Ancient Greek πέντε (pénte), Latin quinque (< *penkʷe), Tocharian A pëñ, Tocharian B piš.[1]


Latvian cardinal numbers
 <  4 5 6  > 
    Cardinal : pieci
    Ordinal : piektais
    Multiplier : piecreiz
    Nominal : piecnieks
    Fractional : piektdaļa
Latvian Wikipedia article on pieci
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  1. five (the cipher, the cardinal number five)
    pieci un pieci ir desmit — five plus five is ten
    no pieciem atņemt četrus‎ ― to subtract four from five
  2. five (A, excellent, the best school grade; syn. piecnieks)
    saņemt matemātikā pieci‎ ― to get an A (lit. five) in mathematics
  3. five (an amount equal to five)
    pieci litri‎ ― five liters
    piecas glāzes‎ ― five glasses
    izlasīt piecas grāmatas‎ ― to read five books
    satikties ar pieciem cilvēkiem‎ ― to meet with five people
    piecus gadus vecs bērns‎ ― a five year old boy
  4. five o'clock (a moment in time; five hours after midnight, or after noon)
    pulkstenis ir pieci‎ ― it is five o'clock
    trīs minūtes pirms pieciem‎ ― three minutes to five
    lekcija beidzas piecos pēc pusdienas‎ ― the lecture finished at five o'clock after lunch (= in the afternoon)


See alsoEdit

Coordinate termsEdit


  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “pieci”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7