See also: pleo-

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

Exists only as a bound morpheme in prefixed verbs, where it continues Proto-Italic *plēō, a yé-present innovatively formed to the aorist stem of Proto-Indo-European *pleh₁- (to fill). Compare Russian -по́лнить (-pólnitʹ), a cognate with the same meaning that likewise doesn't occur uncompounded.

VerbEdit

pleō (present infinitive plēre, perfect active plēvī, supine plētum); second conjugation

  1. Combining form used to form prefixed verbs with the approximate meaning "to fill".
    ca. 500, Pompeius, In artem Donati p. 240 l.34:
    [] est <etiam> conpositum quod nōn potest fierī simplex, ut conpleō: nēmō potest dīcere pleō.
    it's likewise a compound when it cannot be used on its own, such as complete: one can't say plete.

ConjugationEdit

Only one form, plendī (CIL 2.6278.38), is attested in classical Latin without a prefix outside of grammarians. (Festus p.230M) also cites plentur without attribution.

   Conjugation of -pleō (second conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -pleō -plēs -plet -plēmus -plētis -plent
imperfect -plēbam -plēbās -plēbat -plēbāmus -plēbātis -plēbant
future -plēbō -plēbis -plēbit -plēbimus -plēbitis -plēbunt
perfect -plēvī -plēvistī -plēvit -plēvimus -plēvistis -plēvērunt,
-plēvēre
pluperfect -plēveram -plēverās -plēverat -plēverāmus -plēverātis -plēverant
future perfect -plēverō -plēveris -plēverit -plēverimus -plēveritis -plēverint
sigmatic future1 ,
ēssō
-is,
ēssis
-it,
ēssit
-imus,
ēssimus
-itis,
ēssitis
-int,
ēssint
passive present -pleor -plēris,
-plēre
-plētur -plēmur -plēminī -plentur
imperfect -plēbar -plēbāris,
-plēbāre
-plēbātur -plēbāmur -plēbāminī -plēbantur
future -plēbor -plēberis,
-plēbere
-plēbitur -plēbimur -plēbiminī -plēbuntur
perfect -plētus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -plētus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -plētus + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -or,
ēssor
-eris,
ēsseris
-itur,
ēssitur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -pleam -pleās -pleat -pleāmus -pleātis -pleant
imperfect -plērem -plērēs -plēret -plērēmus -plērētis -plērent
perfect -plēverim -plēverīs -plēverit -plēverīmus -plēverītis -plēverint
pluperfect -plēvissem -plēvissēs -plēvisset -plēvissēmus -plēvissētis -plēvissent
sigmatic aorist1 -im,
ēssim
-īs,
ēssīs
-īt,
ēssīt
-īmus,
ēssīmus
-ītis,
ēssītis
-int,
ēssint
passive present -plear -pleāris,
-pleāre
-pleātur -pleāmur -pleāminī -pleantur
imperfect -plērer -plērēris,
-plērēre
-plērētur -plērēmur -plērēminī -plērentur
perfect -plētus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -plētus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -plē -plēte
future -plētō -plētō -plētōte -plentō
passive present -plēre -plēminī
future -plētor -plētor -plentor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -plēre -plēvisse -plētūrum esse -plērī -plētum esse -plētum īrī
participles -plēns -plētūrus -plētus -plendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
plendī -plendō -plendum -plendō -plētum -plētū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been").

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit