Contents

EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Perhaps from a special use of the interjection O, oh; and/or perhaps from o(one), from Middle English o, oo, variant of a, on, oon, an(one). More at one.

SuffixEdit

-o ‎(plural -os or -oes)

  1. A colloquializing suffix.
  2. A type of person (colloquial).
Usage notesEdit

-o generally does not change the meaning of the word, only making it more colloquial, often with elision (like clipping, but with a suffix), and is primarily applied to nouns, as in kiddo(kid) or preso(presentation). It is sometimes applied to adjectives, such as agro or rando. It may also be applied to certain given names or surnames, often with elision and sometimes from an already shortened form, to create a nickname form — e.g., Jacko from Jack, Davo from Dave, Smitho from Smith.

Less commonly, it results in a change in meaning, primarily meaning “a person with a characteristic”, and is generally applied to adjectives, resulting in a noun, as is weirdo(weird person). More rarely it can also be applied to a noun, as in wino(wine-drinking alcoholic).

Derived termsEdit

Type of person

Australianisms; some are also found in other varieties of English

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From many English or English words that end in o.

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. (humorous) Converts certain words to faux Italian or Spanish. Can be used with Spanish el for expressions such as el stinko.
    no problemo
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Back-formation from typo.

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. An error of a specific type.
Derived termsEdit

Derived termsEdit



EsperantoEdit

EtymologyEdit

  • From the masculine singular of the Romance languages, such as Italian (amico); perhaps also the neuter singular of Russian (окно(okno))
  • Perhaps from the above (Italian quello, Russian то(to))

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. Most Esperanto nouns end in -o. (A few nouns end in -aŭ, and with some writers some feminine names end in -a.)
  2. -thing. (correlative object ending.)
    • kio(what?, what)
    • tio(that)
    • ĉio(everything)
    • io(something)
    • nenio(nothing)

FinnishEdit

SuffixEdit

-o ‎(front vowel harmony variant )

  1. Forms result or action nouns from verbs.
    huutaa(shout) + ‎-o → ‎huuto(shout)
    keittää(boil, cook) + ‎-o → ‎keitto(cooking; soup)
    nähdä(see) + ‎-o → ‎näkö(vision) (ability to see)
  2. Forms variants from a few nominal roots.
    hilla(cloudberry) + ‎-o → ‎hillo(jam)
    kanta(base) + ‎-o → ‎kanto(tree stump)
    tasa(level) + ‎-o → ‎taso(plane)

Usage notesEdit

  • Used deverbally especially with those verbs whose citation form ends with -aa or -ää. In stems with e or i, the suffix has its back vowel form, -o.

DeclensionEdit

Inflection of -o (Kotus type 1/valo, no gradation)
nominative -o -ot
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
illative -oon -oihin
singular plural
nominative -o -ot
accusative nom. -o -ot
gen. -on
genitive -on -ojen
partitive -oa -oja
inessive -ossa -oissa
elative -osta -oista
illative -oon -oihin
adessive -olla -oilla
ablative -olta -oilta
allative -olle -oille
essive -ona -oina
translative -oksi -oiksi
instructive -oin
abessive -otta -oitta
comitative -oineen

Derived termsEdit


See alsoEdit


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Corresponds to -ot, -au

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. added to a noun or an adjective after apocope, to create a familiar synonym

Derived termsEdit


IdoEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Esperanto -o, from Romance languages.

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. Nominal suffix. All Ido nouns end in -o.

ItalianEdit

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. Used with a stem to form the first-person singular present of regular are and ere verbs and those -ire verbs that do not take -isc-

LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

See Proto-Indo-European *-h₃onh₂- (with nominative ō made common to all cases).

SuffixEdit

 m ‎(genitive -ōnis); third declension

  1. suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns
    combibō(root: combib-) + combibō
    incubō(root: incub-) + incubō
  2. suffixed to nouns, forms cognomina and, in post-Classical Latin, nicknames and equivalent designations
    Brūn + Brūnō
    cicer + Cicerō
DeclensionEdit
singulare tantum declension in cognomina

Third declension.

Case Singular Plural
nominative -ōnēs
genitive -ōnis -ōnum
dative -ōnī -ōnibus
accusative -ōnem -ōnēs
ablative -ōne -ōnibus
vocative -ōnēs
SynonymsEdit
  • (suffixed to the roots of verbs, forms masculine agent nouns): -a¹
Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Developing from nouns’ ablatives of manner.

SuffixEdit

‎(comparative -ius, superlative -issimō)

  1. forms adverbs
    prīmus + prīmō
    tūtus + tūtō
Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Italic *-āō or *-aēō, from the following sources:

Alternative formsEdit

SuffixEdit

present active , present infinitive -āre, perfect active -āvī, supine -ātum

  1. suffixed to nouns — originally a-stem nouns, but later nouns with other stems — forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    cūra + cūrō
    dōnum + dōnō
    laus(stem: laud-) + laudō
    multa + multō
  2. suffixed to third-conjugation verbs in composition, forms regular first-conjugation verbs
    com- + pellō(pres. act. inf.: pellere) + compellō(pres. act. inf.: compellāre)
    prō- + flīgō(pres. act. inf.: flīgere) + prōflīgō(pres. act. inf.: prōflīgāre)
ConjugationEdit
   Conjugation of -o (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -ās -at -āmus -ātis -ant
imperfect -ābam -ābās -ābat -ābāmus -ābātis -ābant
future -ābō -ābis -ābit -ābimus -ābitis -ābunt
perfect -āvī -āvistī -āvit -āvimus -āvistis -āvērunt, -āvēre
pluperfect -āveram -āverās -āverat -āverāmus -āverātis -āverant
future perfect -āverō -āveris -āverit -āverimus -āveritis -āverint
passive present -or -āris, -āre -ātur -āmur -āminī -antur
imperfect -ābar -ābāris, -ābāre -ābātur -ābāmur -ābāminī -ābantur
future -ābor -āberis, -ābere -ābitur -ābimur -ābiminī -ābuntur
perfect -ātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -ātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -em -ēs -et -ēmus -ētis -ent
imperfect -ārem -ārēs -āret -ārēmus -ārētis -ārent
perfect -āverim -āverīs -āverit -āverīmus -āverītis -āverint
pluperfect -āvissem -āvissēs -āvisset -āvissēmus -āvissētis -āvissent
passive present -er -ēris, -ēre -ētur -ēmur -ēminī -entur
imperfect -ārer -ārēris, -ārēre -ārētur -ārēmur -ārēminī -ārentur
perfect -ātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -ātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -āte
future -ātō -ātō -ātōte -antō
passive present -āre -āminī
future -ātor -ātor -antor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -āre -āvisse -ātūrus esse -ārī -ātus esse -ātum īrī
participles -āns -ātūrus -ātus -andus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
-āre -andī -andō -andum -ātum -ātū
Derived termsEdit


ReferencesEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Regularly declined forms of -us.

SuffixEdit

  1. dative masculine singular of -us
  2. dative neuter singular of -us
  3. ablative masculine singular of -us
  4. ablative neuter singular of -us

See alsoEdit


LithuanianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ā; compare Latvian -a, Proto-Slavic *-a(id). From the Proto-Indo-European thematic masculine ablative ending *-ōd, with regular Balto-Slavic loss of final d. Compare Sanskrit -आत्(-āt), Latin and Ancient Greek ὄπ-ω(óp-ō, whence). In Balto-Slavic, the genitive merged with the ablative. The original genitive was retained, however, in West Baltic; compare Old Prussian -as, presumably from Proto-Indo-European *-os; compare Hittite 𒀸(-as).

SuffixEdit

  1. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form genitive singulars of masculine a-stem adjectives.

Etymology 2Edit

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. Used to form third person present tense forms in third declension verbs.
  2. Used to form third person past tense forms in first declension verbs.

Etymology 3Edit

SuffixEdit

  1. An illative suffix.
    namas + ‎-o → ‎namo
SynonymsEdit

Lower SorbianEdit

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. -ly (used to turn an adjective into an adverb of manner)

Derived termsEdit


SynonymsEdit


Old DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle Dutch: -e

Old High GermanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.
DescendantsEdit
  • Middle High German: -e

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta(eater), Gothic -𐌰(-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰(nuta, fisher). In some cases, the root appears in the zero-grade as in boto (from biotan).

SuffixEdit

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs
    geban(to give) + ‎-o → ‎gëbo(giver)
    sprehhan(to speak) + ‎-o → ‎sprëhho(speaker)
    biotan(to offer, send, command) + ‎-o → ‎boto(messenger)
    ziohan(to pull, lead) + ‎-o → ‎herizogo(army leader)
    sagēn(to say) + ‎-o → ‎fora-sago(prophet)
DeclensionEdit

Most nouns with this suffix follow the n-declension, like hano(cock), namo(name), gomo(man).

DescendantsEdit
  • Middle High German: -e
    • German: -e

In Middle High German, the suffix is replaced by -er (whence German -er), as in Middle High German gëber instead of Old High German gëbo. Only a few German words still have a final -e that results from Old High German -o.


Old SaxonEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ô.

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. Forms adverbs from adjectives.

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *-ô. Cognate to Old English -a, in ǣta(eater), Gothic -𐌰(-a), in 𐌽𐌿𐍄𐌰(nuta, fisher).

SuffixEdit

-o m

  1. used to form masculine agents from verbs and nouns
    gevan(to give) + ‎-o → ‎gevo(giver)
    beddi(bed) + ‎-o → ‎gibeddio(bedfellow)
DescendantsEdit
  • Middle Low German: -e

PortugueseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin -um.

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. forms masculine singular nouns and adjectives

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Portuguese -o, from Latin .

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. forms the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

SpanishEdit

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. suffix indicating the first-person singular present indicative of verbs

VolapükEdit

SuffixEdit

-o

  1. adverb ending
  2. -wise (in the matter of; with regard to)

Derived termsEdit