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BislamaEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From English him, 'em

SuffixEdit

-im

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Usage notesEdit

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is i, then the suffix is -im. Otherwise, use -em or -um.


HungarianEdit

EtymologyEdit

-i (possessive plural) +‎ -m (first-person singular personal suffix)

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-im

  1. (possessive suffix) my ... -s (first-person singular, multiple possessions)
    kapu (gate)a kapuim (my gates)
    palota (palace)a palotáim (my palaces)
    érme (coin)az érméim (my coins)

Usage notesEdit

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -im is added to words ending in a vowel except -i. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    -aim is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant
    -eim is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant
    -jaim is added to back vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i
    -jeim is added to front vowel words ending in a consonant or the vowel -i

DeclensionEdit

For back vowel words:

Inflection (stem in -a-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative -im
accusative -imat
dative -imnak
instrumental -immal
causal-final -imért
translative -immá
terminative -imig
essive-formal -imként
essive-modal -imul
inessive -imban
superessive -imon
adessive -imnál
illative -imba
sublative -imra
allative -imhoz
elative -imból
delative -imról
ablative -imtól

For front vowel words:

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -im
accusative -imet
dative -imnek
instrumental -immel
causal-final -imért
translative -immé
terminative -imig
essive-formal -imként
essive-modal -imül
inessive -imben
superessive -imen
adessive -imnél
illative -imbe
sublative -imre
allative -imhez
elative -imből
delative -imről
ablative -imtől

See alsoEdit


IrishEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-im

  1. first-person singular present indicative and imperative ending of verbs

Usage notesEdit

  • This form is attached to first-conjugation verbs with stems ending in either a slender consonant or a vowel;
  • Used in place of the pronoun :
    feic + ‎-im → ‎feicim (I see)
    súigh + ‎-im → ‎súim (I suck) (stem sú-)

Related termsEdit


PijinEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From English him, 'em.

SuffixEdit

-im

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

Usage notesEdit

The suffix to be used is determined by vowel harmony. If the last vowel in the stem is i, then the suffix is -im. Otherwise, use -em or -um.


PortugueseEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-im m (plural -ins)

  1. (uncommon) forms diminutives
  2. Pronunciation spelling of -inho, representing especially Minas Gerais Portuguese.

SynonymsEdit

  • (diminutive suffix): -inho

Tok PisinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From English him, 'em

SuffixEdit

-im

  1. Indicates a transitive verb

TurkishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Ottoman Turkish م (-m, ım, -im, first-person singular possessive suffix), from Old Anatolian Turkish [script needed] (-m, um, -üm, first-person singular possessive suffix), from Proto-Turkic [Term?]. Cognate to Old Turkic 𐰢 (-m, -ım, -im, -um, -üm, first-person singular possessive suffix).

SuffixEdit

-im

  1. First-person singular possessive suffix denoting singular possession in words ending in a consonant.
    ev (house)evim (my house)
    ofis (office)ofisim (my office)
Usage notesEdit
  • Turkish has word-final stress. Usually, when the possessive suffix -im is the last syllable of a word, it takes the stress. See also the first usage note of Etymology 2. However, when suffixed to a word with anomalous stress, the same syllable is stressed as before; for example, İzmir /ˈiz.miɾ/ + -imİzmir’im /ˈiz.mi.ɾim/ (“my Izmir”).
  • If the noun ends in a vowel, the vowel of the possessive suffix is elided, becoming -m:
    kedi (cat) + -imkedim (“my cat”).
  • The suffix obeys vowel harmony and is used for words whose last vowel is e or i, and a small number of loan words; for example, saat (watch) + -imsaatim (“my watch”). It may change into -ım, -um and -üm according to the last vowel of the word it is suffixed to. Examples:
    kız (girl) + -imkızım (”my girl”) (used when the last vowel is “a” or “ı”);
    yol (road) + -imyolum (”my road”) (used when the last vowel is “o” or “u”);
    yüz (face) + -imyüzüm (”my face”) (used when `the last vowel is “ö” or “ü”).
  • When a stem ends in a voiced consonant, it may become devoiced in syllable-final position. If a word ends in a thus devoiced “p”, “ç”, “t” or “k”, suffixing it with -im changes it back into a voiced “b”, “c”, “d” or “ğ”:
    sebep (reason) + -imsebebim (”my reason”);
    çekiç (hammer) + -imçekicim (”my hammer”);
    senet (bill) + -imsenedim (”my bill}}
    çiçek (flower) + -imçiçeğim (”my flower”).
  • In many loan words from Arabic that are originally monosyllables ending in two consonants, an epenthic “i” is inserted between these consonants. When suffixed with -im, the epenthic “i” is dropped:
    beyin (brain) + -imbeynim (”my brain”).
Related termsEdit
  • -miz, -imiz (first-person plural possessive suffix)

Etymology 2Edit

From Ottoman Turkish م (-ım, -im, first-person singular suffix), from Old Anatolian Turkish [script needed] (-ven, first-person singular suffix), ultimately from Proto-Turkic *-bẹn (see ben (I)). Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰢𐰤 (-men, first person singular suffix), Karakhanid مَنْ (men, I, first person singular postposition), Old Uyghur [script needed] (-men, first person singular suffix).

The suffix ultimately merged with the first-person singular possessive suffix (see Etymology 1 above) following the road *-bẹn → *-vẹn → *-ẹn → *-ẹm → -im. 11th-century Karakhanid scholar of Turkic languages Kashgari already hints that the Oghuz use *-en dropping /m/ as opposed to the Karakhanid using "-men" Compare Turkmen -in, -än (first-person singular suffix), Azerbaijani -əm (first-person singular suffix). For a similar case of loss of initial /b/ at the suffix level, compare -iz (first-person plural suffix), from Common Turkic *biz (see biz (we)).

SuffixEdit

-im

  1. Conjugation of the verb "to be" for first-person singular, simple present tense.
    güzel (beautiful)güzelim (I am beautiful)
  2. Personal suffix for "ben" ("I" - first person singular)
    gel- (come) + -ecek (future tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)geleceğim (I will come)
    sev- (love) + -(e)r (present tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)severim (I like, enjoy)
Usage notesEdit
  • In Turkish, as a word final stress language, when this suffix is at the end of a word it does not take the stress due to not being originally a suffix; therefore a differentiation is realized where the possessive suffix carries the stress. See also the first usage note on Etymology 1.
    bel (waist) + -im (first person suffix for "to be")bélim (I am (the) waist), as opposed to bel (waist) + -im (first-person possessive suffix)belím (my waist)
    gel- (come) + -(i)r (present tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)gelírim (I come), as opposed to gelir (income) + -im (first-person possessive suffix)gelirím (my income)
    gel- (come) + -ecek (future tense marker) + -im (personal suffix)gelecéğim (I will come), as opposed to gelecek (future) + -im (first-person possessive suffix)geleceğím (my future) or also alternatively gelecek (future) + -im (first person suffix for "to be")gelecéğim (I am (the) future)
  • If the word ends in a vowel, it's used with an auxiliary consonant; "y" (for the verb to be).
    terli (sweaty)terliyim (I am sweaty)
  • It must be used with an apostrophe if it's appended to a proper noun.
    ZaferZafer'im (I am Zafer)
  • It's always -um in present continuous tense. And in other tenses, the personal suffix may also be -ım, -um, -üm according to the last vowel of the word.
    ver- (give) + -iyor (present continuous tense marker) + -um (personal suffix)veriyorum (I am giving)
    üzül- (be sad) + -(ü)r (present tense marker) + -üm (personal suffix)üzülürüm (I become sad)
    kal- (stay) + -(ı)r (present tense marker) + -ım (personal suffix)kalırım (I stay)
    bul- (find) + -(u)r (present tense marker) + -um (personal suffix)bulurum (I find)
Related termsEdit

UzbekEdit

SuffixEdit

-im (-им) (Cyrillic)

  1. First-person singular possessive suffix. Used after a noun ending in a consonant. It has the same meaning as "mening" (my) placed before a noun.
    Bu kitobim.
    This is my book.