From Late Latin, from Ancient Greek τόπος (tópos, “place, locality”) + -(o)logy (“study of”, “a branch of knowledge”) (from Middle English -logie, via French -logie, from Latin -logia, from Ancient Greek -logia [script needed], from logos (logos, “word, reason, speech”)).
- (mathematics) A branch of mathematics studying those properties of a geometric figure or solid that are not changed by stretching, bending and similar homeomorphisms.
- (mathematics) A collection τ of subsets of a set X such that the empty set and X are both members of τ and τ is closed under finitary intersections and arbitrary unions.
- (medicine) The anatomical structure of part of the body.
- (computing) The arrangement of nodes in a communications network.
- (technology) The properties of a particular technological embodiment that are not affected by differences in the physical layout or form of its application.
- (topography) The topographical study of geographic locations or given places in relation to their history.
- (dated) The art of, or method for, assisting the memory by associating the thing or subject to be remembered with some place.