Eastern Mari

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Russian е́сли (jésli).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈjesli/
  • Rhymes: -esli
  • Hyphenation: ес‧ли

Conjunction

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если (jesĺi)

  1. Synonym of гын (gyn)
    если толат, ойлем
    jesĺi tolat, ojĺem
    if you come, I'll tell you

References

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  • J. Bradley et al. (2023) “если”, in The Mari Web Project: Mari-English Dictionary, University of Vienna

Russian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Old Ruthenian если, есьли, естли (esli, esʹli, estli) around XVI, from Old Polish jestli, jesli.[1][2] By surface analysis, есть (jestʹ) +‎ ли (li).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈjes⁽ʲ⁾lʲɪ]
  • Audio:(file)

Conjunction

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е́сли (jésli)

  1. if, in case
    Synonyms: е́жели (jéželi), ко́ли (kóli), коль (kolʹ), когда́ (kogdá)
    Я бы пошёл в кино́, е́сли бы у меня́ бы́ло вре́мя.
    Ja by pošól v kinó, jésli by u menjá býlo vrémja.
    I would have gone to the cinema if I had had time.
    а е́слиa jésliif ever
    е́сли иjésli ieven if
    е́сли то́лькоjésli tólʹkoonly if

Usage notes

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In Russian, the conjunction е́сли (jésli) can only be used to express a condition or hypothetical situation, while the conjunction ли (li) is used to express the meaning of whether. This is different from English, where if can be used for both.

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Descendants

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  • Eastern Mari: если (jesĺi)

References

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  1. ^ Šanskij, N. M. (2004) “если”, in Školʹnyj etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [School Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), Moscow: Drofa
  2. ^ Viktor Vinogradov ((Can we date this quote?)) “если”, in История слов[1]