See also: تحم

Arabic

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Etymology 1

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Root
و خ م (w-ḵ-m)

From a corruption of the verb اِتَّخَمَ (ittaḵama) or from a resegmentation of تُخْمَة (tuḵma, indigestion).

Verb

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تَخِمَ (taḵima) I, non-past يَتْخَمُ‎ (yatḵamu)

  1. to suffer indigestion, to be troubled with glut
Conjugation
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Noun

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تَخَم (taḵamm

  1. verbal noun of تَخِمَ (taḵima) (form I)
Declension
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Etymology 2

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Noun

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تُخَم (tuḵampl

  1. plural of تُخْمَة (tuḵma)

Etymology 3

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From Aramaic תְּחוּמָא (təḥūmā, border, limit).

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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تُخْم or تَخْم (tuḵm or taḵmm (plural تُخُوم (tuḵūm) or تُخُم (tuḵum))

  1. frontier, border, limit, boundary
    • 7th century CE, Sunan Abī Dāwud, 20:106:
      جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَبِ مَا بَيْنَ الْوَادِي إِلَى أَقْصَى الْيَمَنِ إِلَى تُخُومِ الْعِرَاقِ إِلَى الْبَحْرِ‏.‏
      jazīratu l-ʕarabi mā bayna l-wādī ʔilā ʔaqṣā l-yamani ʔilā tuḵūmi l-ʕirāqi ʔilā l-baḥri.
      The island of Arabia lies between Al-Wadi to the extremes of the Yemen extending to the frontiers of Al Iraq and the sea.
Declension
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Etymology 4

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Denominal verb of تُخْم (tuḵm) or from Aramaic תָּחַם (tāḥam), תְּחַם (təḥam, to delimit), which is denominal from תְּחוּם (təḥūm, border, limit).

Verb

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تَخَمَ (taḵama) I, non-past يَتْخِمُ‎ (yatḵimu)

  1. to delimit
Conjugation
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References

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  • tḥwm”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • tḥm”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 282
  • Freytag, Georg (1830) “تخم”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[1] (in Latin), volume 1, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 187
  • Lane, Edward William (1863) “تخم”, in Arabic-English Lexicon[2], London: Williams & Norgate, page 299
  • Wehr, Hans with Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985) “تخم”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart[3] (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 137

Persian

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Persian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia fa

Etymology

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From Parthian [Manichaean needed] (twxm /⁠tōxm⁠/, seed, line, race), from Proto-Iranian *táwxma (compare Avestan 𐬙𐬀𐬊𐬑𐬨𐬀𐬥- (taoxman-, seed), from Proto-Indo-European *tewk- (germ, seed, sprout, offspring). Compare Old Armenian տոհմ (tohm), an Iranian borrowing.

Pronunciation

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Readings
Classical reading? tuxm
Dari reading? tuxm
Iranian reading? toxm
Tajik reading? tuxm

Noun

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Dari تخم
Iranian Persian
Tajik тухм

تخم (toxm)

  1. seed, grain
  2. sperm, semen
  3. ovum, egg
  4. (informal, figurative after “egg”) testicle
  5. (figurative) origin

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Azerbaijani: toxum
  • Ottoman Turkish: تخم (tohum), توخوم (tohum)
  • Bashkir: тоҡом (toqom)
  • Kazakh: тұқым (tūqym)
  • Urdu: تخم (tuxm)
  • Uyghur: تۇخۇم (tuxum, egg)
  • Uzbek: tuxum (egg)

Urdu

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Etymology

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From Classical Persian تخم (tuxm, seed; semen; origin).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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تُخْم (tuxmm (Hindi spelling तुख़्म)

  1. seed
  2. sperm, semen
  3. egg
  4. progeny; lineage, descent
  5. (figurative) origin

Derived terms

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References

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  • تخم”, in اُردُو لُغَت (urdū luġat) (in Urdu), Ministry of Education: Government of Pakistan, 2017.
  • Qureshi, Bashir Ahmad (1971) “تخم”, in Kitabistan's 20th Century Standard Dictionary‎, Lahore: Kitabistan Pub. Co.
  • Platts, John T. (1884) “تخم”, in A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English, London: W. H. Allen & Co.
  • تخم”, in ریخْتَہ لُغَت (rexta luġat) - Rekhta Dictionary [Urdu dictionary with meanings in Hindi & English], Noida, India: Rekhta Foundation, 2024.