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Etymology 1Edit


  1. in the presence of
  2. into the presence of, to
Usage notesEdit

This preposition is used when the object is someone of higher status, such as a king or a god, relating one person to another when social customs prohibit specifying a direct relationship. Thus, one does not speak ‘to’ (n) a god, but ‘in the presence of’ (ḫr) him.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit




  1. (with following subjunctive or nonverbal predicate) then, and then, so; introduces a subordinate clause describing the inevitable result of an action in a preceding clause
  2. (with following suffix pronoun/subject and imperfective) must, has to; introduces a subordinate clause describing a necessity
  3. (introducing a prepositional phrase) then; also functions as a converter to allow a prepositional phrase to begin a sentence
Usage notesEdit

In Middle Egyptian this particle is commonly used with a following subject and imperfective to denote necessity but only rarely with a following subjunctive to denote inevitable result.

Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Possibly derived from ḫrw (voice).




  1. (with following suffix pronoun, and optionally also noun, indicating the speaker) marks a non-future direct quotation; says, said
Usage notesEdit

Like the other quotatives kꜣ, jn, and ḫ, this word either follows the entire quotation that it marks or is inserted near its start (but never at its start).

Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit




  1. (intransitive) to fall
  2. (transitive) to fell
Derived termsEdit