Chinese

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dragonfly
trad. (蜻蛉)
simp. #(蜻蛉)

Pronunciation

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Noun

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蜻蛉

  1. dragonfly

Derived terms

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Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
とんぼ
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
jukujikun
Alternative spelling
蜻蜓
 トンボ on Japanese Wikipedia

/toɴboː//toɴbo/

Shift from earlier tonbō, shortening the final vowel.[1] Now the most common reading of this term.

The kanji are jukujikun (熟字訓), from Chinese 蜻蛉 (qīnglíng).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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蜻蛉(とんぼ) or 蜻蛉(トンボ) (tonbo

  1. dragonfly
    Synonym: (Tsugaru) だんぶり (danburi)
Usage notes
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
とんぼう
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
jukujikun

/toubau//toːbɔː//toɴbɔː//toɴboː/

Shift from earlier tōbō.[4] Appears in the 康頼本草 (Yasuyori Honzō) of 995 CE.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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蜻蛉(とんぼう) or 蜻蛉(トンボー) (tonbōとんばう (tonbau)?

  1. dragonfly

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
とうぼう
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
jukujikun

/toubau//toːbɔː//toːboː/

Derivation unknown.[4] Some theories include:

  • Originally a compound of 飛ぶ (tobu, to fly; flying) + (, stick, pole, ancient reading bau).[5] However, this combines a native Japanese etymon with a Chinese borrowing, and the term appears early in the historical record, when such compounds were not common.[6]
  • Originally a compound of 飛ぶ (tobu, to fly; flying) + (ha, wing, ancient reading pa) + uncertain element (u).[5] While more likely in terms of historical trends, this leaves the final element unexplained.[6]

This reading appears to have been superseded by tonbō and tonbo.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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蜻蛉(とうぼう) or 蜻蛉(トウボウ) (tōbōとうばう (toubau)?

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) dragonfly

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
せい
Hyōgaiji
れい
Hyōgaiji
kan’on

From Middle Chinese 蜻蛉 (MC tsjeng leng).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(せい)(れい) or 蜻蛉(セイレイ) (seirei

  1. dragonfly

Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
えんば
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
irregular

Attested in the late 18th century.[4]

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Noun

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蜻蛉(えんば) or 蜻蛉(エンバ) (enbaゑんば (wenba)?

  1. (archaic) dragonfly

Etymology 6

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Kanji in this term
あきつ
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
irregular
Kanji in this term
あきず
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of 蜻蛉 – see the following entry.
秋津あきず
[noun] (archaic) dragonfly
Alternative spelling
アキズ
秋津あきつ
[noun] (archaic, since the Heian period) dragonfly
[proper noun] a railway station in Higashimurayama, Tokyo
[proper noun] a shrine in Higashimurayama, Tokyo
[proper noun] name of several towns in Japan
[proper noun] Akitsu (a town in Higashimurayama, Tokyo prefecture, Japan)
[proper noun] Akitsu (a town in Meitoku district, Gifu, Gifu Prefecture, Japan)
[proper noun] Akitsu (a town in Higashi district, Kumamoto, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan) [1954-]
[proper noun] name of several villages in Japan
[proper noun] a surname
Alternative spelling
アキツ
(This term, 蜻蛉, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 7

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Kanji in this term
かぎろう
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
irregular
Kanji in this term
かげろう
Hyōgaiji Hyōgaiji
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of 蜻蛉 – see the following entry.
蜉蝣かげろう
[noun] a mayfly
[noun] (obsolete) Synonym of 蜻蛉 (tonbo, dragonfly)
Alternative spelling
カゲロウ
蜉蝣かぎろう
[noun] (obsolete) Synonym of 蜻蛉 (tonbo, dragonfly)
(This term, 蜻蛉, is an alternative spelling (obsolete) of the above term.)

References

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  1. ^ 蜻蛉・蜻蜓”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 蜻蛉”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[2] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  5. 5.0 5.1 トンボ・蜻蛉”, in 日本辞典 (Nihon Jiten, Japan Dictionary) (in Japanese), 2007–2017.
  6. 6.0 6.1 トンボ/蜻蛉/とんぼ”, in 語源由来辞典 (Gogen Yurai Jiten, Etymology Derivation Dictionary) (in Japanese), 2003–2024.