ء

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See also: ۽, ٕ, ٔ, and ٴ

ء U+0621, ء
ARABIC LETTER HAMZA
ؠ
[U+0620]
Arabic آ
[U+0622]
U+FE80, ﺀ
ARABIC LETTER HAMZA ISOLATED FORM
ﹿ
[U+FE7F]
Arabic Presentation Forms-B
[U+FE81]

Arabic edit

 
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Etymology edit

Most Arabic dialects early on lost the Proto-Semitic glottal stop, which caused compensatory lengthening of a preceding short vowel. At the beginning of the Islamic period only some of the most conservative lects preserved the consonant. Therefore it was not reflected in the spelling: One generally wrote and pronounced ذِيب (ḏīb, wolf), for example. The grammarians, however, favoured the conservative pronunciation and indicated the glottal stop with various diacritic marks, which ultimately led to the contemporary ذِئْب (ḏiʔb).

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ء or هَمْزَة (ʔ or hamza)

  1. Hamza (ء) is a sign in the Arabic script that represents the glottal stop /ʔ/. It can be considered a diacritic or a letter, but it is not counted among the 28 letters of the alphabet. The exact spelling of the glottal stop depends on the combination of vowels that follow and precede it. It may be written with آ /ʔaː/, أ /ʔa/, /aʔ/, /ʔu/, إ /ʔi/, ئ /ʔi/, /iʔ/, ؤ /ʔu/, /uʔ/, or, usually after a long vowel, ء.

Usage notes edit

  • The curious vowel-dependent spelling of ء means that the triptotic noun declension, which is normally not reflected in the spelling, may become visible before a pronominal suffix. Compare: أَصْدِقاؤُنَا (ʔaṣdiqāʔunā, our friends, nominative), أَصْدِقائِنَا (ʔaṣdiqāʔinā, genitive), أَصْدِقاءَنَا (ʔaṣdiqāʔanā, accusative).

See also edit

Burushaski edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ء ()

  1. The fourty-seventh letter of the Burushaski alphabet, written in the Perso-Arabic script

Malay edit

 
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Pronunciation edit

  • (Name of letter) IPA(key): [hamzah]
  • (Phoneme) IPA(key): [(ʔ)], [ʔ]

Letter edit

ء

  1. The thirty-third letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Arabic script.

See also edit

Persian edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

ء (hamze)

  1. همزه (hamze/hamza, Hamza) – a character representing a glottal stop. It is considered a letter but is not counted as part of the Persian alphabet.

See also edit

Urdu edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ɦəm.zɑ(ː)/
  • (phoneme):
    • (predominate, above a vowel): silent
    • (above he): IPA(key): /jɪ/, [je], [ji]
    • (independent, rare): IPA(key): /ʔ/ or silent
      • Unlike other languages using the Arabic script, Urdu does not commonly use Hamza as a glottal stop. Its primary usage is to act as a zero consonant to allow two adjacent vowels; گاؤں (gāõ), for example, is pronounced /ɡɑː.õ/ not /ɡɑː.ʔõ/.

Letter edit

ء (' or hamza)

  1. ہَمْزَہ (hamza, Hamza) – the thirty-fifth letter of the Urdu alphabet.

See also edit