See also: ax, Ax, AX, .ax, ax̱, a꞉x, ˀa·x, and ах



Adjectival form of a Proto-Indo-European k-stem, from Proto-Italic *-āks from words of the form Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂-k-s. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)



-āx (genitive -ācis); third-declension one-termination suffix

  1. used to form adjectives expressing a tendency or inclination to the action of the root verb; -ish, -y
    audeō (I dare) > audāx (bold)
    edō (I eat) > edāx (gluttonous, voracious)
    loquor (I talk) > loquāx (talkative)
    pugnō (I fight) > pugnāx (combative, fond of fighting)


Third-declension one-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative -āx -ācēs -ācia
Genitive -ācis -ācium
Dative -ācī -ācibus
Accusative -ācem -āx -ācēs -ācia
Ablative -ācī -ācibus
Vocative -āx -ācēs -ācia

Derived termsEdit



From common dialectal Arabic -aʿš, -āš, from عَشَرة(ʿašara, ten), whence Maltese għaxra. There is evidence that the underlying had already been vocalised in this ending before the same happened as a general development in Maltese (hence also the lack of it in the spelling). We find the same vocalisation in some modern Arabic dialects; compare Egyptian Arabic حداشر(ḥidāšar, eleven).


  • IPA(key): /aːʃ/
  • Sometimes shortened to /aʃ/, but still stressed.



  1. Used to form the pronominal forms of the cardinal numbers from 11 to 19; -teen.
    tnejn (two) + ‎-ax → ‎tnax (twelve)
    sebat (seven, attributive) + ‎-ax → ‎sbatax (seventeen).

Usage notesEdit

  • With numbers from 13 to 19, the form is derived from the long attributive form in -t of the underlying simple number. Slight vocalic changes may occur (as the loss of the e in sbatax above).
  • Attributively, that is before a noun, numbers in -ax add the additional ending -il. See that lemma.