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From Proto-Italic *awidēō (to be greedy, want very much), from *awidos (Latin avidus). See the same treatment in ārdeō < āridus.



audeō (present infinitive audēre, perfect active ausī or ausus sum, supine ausum); second conjugation, optionally semi-deponent, no imperative

  1. I dare, venture, risk
    • 63 BCE, Cicero, Catiline Orations Oratio in Catilinam Prima in Senatu Habita.1:
      Quam diū quisquam erit quī tē dēfendēre audeat, vīvēs, et vīvēs ita ut nunc vīvis, multīs meīs et firmīs praesidiīs obsessus nē commōvēre tē contrā rem pūblicam possīs. Multōrum tē etiam oculī et aurēs nōn sentientem, sīcut adhūc fēcērunt, speculābuntur atque custōdient.
      As long as one person exists who can dare to defend you, you shall live; but you shall live as you do now, surrounded by my many and trusty guards, so that you shall not be able to stir one finger against the republic: many eyes and ears shall still observe and watch you, as they have hitherto done, though you shall not perceive them.
    • 20 BCE – 14 BCE, Horace, Epistles 1.40:
      Sapere audē.
      Dare to be wise.
  2. (poetic) I am eager for battle


  • The perfect active subjunctive may come as "ausim" etc.
  • The form sodes is a contraction of "si audes"
   Conjugation of audeō (second conjugation, optionally semi-deponent, no imperatives)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present audeō audēs audet audēmus audētis audent
imperfect audēbam audēbās audēbat audēbāmus audēbātis audēbant
future audēbō audēbis audēbit audēbimus audēbitis audēbunt
perfect ausī, ausus sum ausistī, ausus es ausit, ausus est ausimus, ausī sumus ausistis, ausī estis ausērunt, ausēre, ausī sunt
pluperfect auseram, ausus eram auserās, ausus erās auserat, ausus erat auserāmus, ausī erāmus auserātis, ausī erātis auserant, ausī erant
future perfect auserō, ausus erō auseris, ausus eris auserit, ausus erit auserimus, ausī erimus auseritis, ausī eritis auserint, ausī erint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present audeam audeās audeat audeāmus audeātis audeant
imperfect audērem audērēs audēret audērēmus audērētis audērent
perfect auserim, ausus sim auserīs, ausus sīs auserit, ausus sit auserīmus, ausī sīmus auserītis, ausī sītis auserint, ausī sint
pluperfect ausissem, ausus essem ausissēs, ausus essēs ausisset, ausus esset ausissēmus, ausī essēmus ausissētis, ausī essētis ausissent, ausī essent
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives audēre ausum esse ausūrum esse
participles audēns ausus ausūrus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
audendī audendō audendum audendō ausum ausū

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


  • Asturian: osar
  • Catalan: gosar
  • French: oser
  • Friulian: olsâ
  • Galician: ousar
  • Italian: osare


  • audeo in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • audeo in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • audeo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill