See also: EDO, Edo, and -edo





  1. Indicative present connegative form of etoa.
  2. Second-person singular imperative present form of etoa.
  3. Second-person singular imperative present connegative form of etoa.


Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Italic *edō, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁édti. The long vowel in some of the forms is due to Lachmann's law.

Cognates include Ancient Greek ἔδω ‎(édō), Sanskrit अत्ति ‎(átti), Hittite 𒂊𒀉𒈪 ‎(eidmi, I eat), Old English etan (English eat).



edō ‎(present infinitive edere or ēsse, perfect active ēdī, supine ēsum); irregular conjugation

  1. I eat.
    Tunc, modo edere volebat.
    At that time, he just wanted to eat.
   Conjugation of edo (third conjugation, some irregular alternative forms)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present edō edis, ēs edit, ēst edimus editis, ēstis edunt
imperfect edēbam edēbās edēbat edēbāmus edēbātis edēbant
future edam edēs edet edēmus edētis edent
perfect ēdī ēdistī ēdit ēdimus ēdistis ēdērunt, ēdēre
pluperfect ēderam ēderās ēderat ēderāmus ēderātis ēderant
future perfect ēderō ēderis ēderit ēderimus ēderitis ēderint
passive present edor ederis, edere editur, ēstur edimur ediminī eduntur
imperfect edēbar edēbāris, edēbāre edēbātur edēbāmur edēbāminī edēbantur
future edar edēris, edēre edētur edēmur edēminī edentur
perfect ēsus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect ēsus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect ēsus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present edam, edim edās, edīs edat, edit edāmus, edīmus edātis, edītis edant, edint
imperfect ederem, ēssem ederēs, ēssēs ederet, ēsset ederēmus, ēssēmus ederētis, ēssētis ederent, ēssent
perfect ēderim ēderīs ēderit ēderīmus ēderītis ēderint
pluperfect ēdissem ēdissēs ēdisset ēdissēmus ēdissētis ēdissent
passive present edar edāris, edāre edātur edāmur edāminī edantur
imperfect ederer ederēris, ederēre ederētur ederēmur ederēminī ederentur
perfect ēsus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect ēsus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ede, ēs edite, ēste
future editō, ēstō editō, ēstō editōte, ēstōte eduntō
passive present edere ediminī
future editor editor eduntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives edere, ēsse ēdisse ēsūrus esse edī ēsus esse ēsum īrī
participles edēns ēsūrus ēsus edendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
edere edendī edendō edendum ēsum ēsū
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit


  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press
  • ĕdo in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Etymology 2Edit

From ex- ‎(out of) +‎ *dō; see crē-dō for details.



ēdō ‎(present infinitive ēdere, perfect active ēdidī, supine ēditum); third conjugation

  1. I give out, put or bring forth; eject, discharge.
  2. I produce, bear, give birth to, yield, form, beget.
  3. I put forth, publish, spread abroad, circulate.
    Cum tua non edas, carpis mea carmina, Laeli.
    Because you do not publish your poetry, you steal mine, Laelus.
    …cum ille asperrimam epistulam de se in vulgus edidisset.
    …even though he had publicly circulated a most scathing letter about him.
  4. I set forth, relate, tell, disclose, deliver, announce, declare.
  5. I produce, perform, show, inflict, bring about, cause.
  6. I raise up, lift, elevate.
   Conjugation of edo (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ēdō ēdis ēdit ēdimus ēditis ēdunt
imperfect ēdēbam ēdēbās ēdēbat ēdēbāmus ēdēbātis ēdēbant
future ēdam ēdēs ēdet ēdēmus ēdētis ēdent
perfect ēdidī ēdidistī ēdidit ēdidimus ēdidistis ēdidērunt, ēdidēre
pluperfect ēdideram ēdiderās ēdiderat ēdiderāmus ēdiderātis ēdiderant
future perfect ēdiderō ēdideris ēdiderit ēdiderimus ēdideritis ēdiderint
passive present ēdor ēderis, ēdere ēditur ēdimur ēdiminī ēduntur
imperfect ēdēbar ēdēbāris, ēdēbāre ēdēbātur ēdēbāmur ēdēbāminī ēdēbantur
future ēdar ēdēris, ēdēre ēdētur ēdēmur ēdēminī ēdentur
perfect ēditus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect ēditus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect ēditus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ēdam ēdās ēdat ēdāmus ēdātis ēdant
imperfect ēderem ēderēs ēderet ēderēmus ēderētis ēderent
perfect ēdiderim ēdiderīs ēdiderit ēdiderīmus ēdiderītis ēdiderint
pluperfect ēdidissem ēdidissēs ēdidisset ēdidissēmus ēdidissētis ēdidissent
passive present ēdar ēdāris, ēdāre ēdātur ēdāmur ēdāminī ēdantur
imperfect ēderer ēderēris, ēderēre ēderētur ēderēmur ēderēminī ēderentur
perfect ēditus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect ēditus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present ēde ēdite
future ēditō ēditō ēditōte ēduntō
passive present ēdere ēdiminī
future ēditor ēditor ēduntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives ēdere ēdidisse ēditūrus esse ēdī ēditus esse ēditum īrī
participles ēdēns ēditūrus ēditus ēdendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
ēdere ēdendī ēdendō ēdendum ēditum ēditū
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit


  • ēdo in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • edo in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • EDO in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883–1887)
  • edo in Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to see the light, come into the world: in lucem edi
    • to begin to laugh: risum edere, tollere
    • to burst into a roar of laughter: cachinnum tollere, edere
    • to give up the ghost: animam edere or efflare
    • to give up the ghost: extremum vitae spiritum edere
    • to divulge, make public: efferre or edere aliquid in vulgus
    • to set an example: exemplum edere, prodere
    • to inflict an exemplary punishment on some one: exemplum (severitatis) edere in aliquo (Q. Fr. 1. 2. 2. 5)
    • to bring out a play, put it on the stage (used of the man who finds the money): fabulam edere
    • to give public games in honour of Jupiter: ludos facere, edere (Iovi)
    • to give a gladiatorial show: munus gladiatorium edere, dare (or simply munus edere, dare)
    • to publish a book: librum edere (Div. 1. 3. 6)
    • to commit a crime against some one: scelus edere in aliquem (Sest. 26. 58)
    • to give an oracular response: oraculum dare, edere
    • to produce as a witness: aliquem testem dare, edere, proferre
    • to cause great slaughter, carnage: ingentem caedem edere (Liv. 5. 13)
    • to massacre: stragem edere, facere
    • (ambiguous) God made the world: deus mundum aedificavit, fabricatus est, effecit (not creavit)
    • (ambiguous) God is the Creator of the world: deus est mundi procreator (not creator), aedificator, fabricator, opifex rerum
    • (ambiguous) one has a view over...; one is able to see as far as..: prospectus est ad aliquid
    • (ambiguous) the water reaches to the waist: aqua est umbilīco tenus
    • (ambiguous) the atmosphere: aer qui est terrae proximus
    • (ambiguous) the frost set in so severely that..: tanta vis frigoris insecuta est, ut
    • (ambiguous) to be able to bear heat and cold: aestus et frigoris patientem esse
    • (ambiguous) a hill lies to the north: est a septentrionibus collis
    • (ambiguous) to be favourably situated: opportuno loco situm or positum esse
    • (ambiguous) the city is very beautifully situated: urbs situ ad aspectum praeclara est
    • (ambiguous) the town stands on rising ground: oppidum colli impositum est
    • (ambiguous) the town lies at the foot of a mountain: oppidum monti subiectum est
    • (ambiguous) the city is situate on a bay: urbs in sinu sita est
    • (ambiguous) to be contiguous, adjacent to a country: finitimum esse terrae
    • (ambiguous) to have the same boundaries; to be coterminous: continentem esse terrae or cum terra (Fam. 15. 2. 2)
    • (ambiguous) the road is the same length: tantundem viae est
    • (ambiguous) to be separated by an immense interval of space and time: intervallo locorum et temporum disiunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be travelling abroad: peregrinari, peregre esse
    • (ambiguous) to meet some one by chance: obvium or obviam esse, obviam fieri
    • (ambiguous) I cannot wait till..: nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam ut
    • (ambiguous) nothing is more tiresome to me than..: nihil mihi longius est quam (c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) it is high time that..: tempus maximum est, ut
    • (ambiguous) I have not seen you for five years: quinque anni sunt or sextus annus est, cum te non vidi
    • (ambiguous) the day is already far advanced: multus dies or multa lux est
    • (ambiguous) to-day the 5th of September; tomorrow September the 5th: hodie qui est dies Non. Sept.; cras qui dies futurus est Non. Sept.
    • (ambiguous) what time is it: quota hora est?
    • (ambiguous) it is the third hour (= 9 A.M.: tertia hora est
    • (ambiguous) the foe is at our heels, is upon us: hostis in cervicibus alicuius est
    • (ambiguous) one can see it in his face: in fronte alicuius inscriptum est
    • (ambiguous) to belong to the king's bodyguard: a latere regis esse
    • (ambiguous) to make oneself conspicuous: conspici, conspicuum esse aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be blind: oculis captum esse (vid. sect. IV. 6., note auribus, oculis...)
    • (ambiguous) to cherish as the apple of one's eye: aliquis est mihi in oculis
    • (ambiguous) to prostrate oneself before a person: ad pedes alicuius iacēre, stratum esse (stratum iacēre)
    • (ambiguous) to fail to see what lies before one: quod ante pedes est or positum est, non videre
    • (ambiguous) to be endowed with sense: sensibus praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to come within the sphere of the senses: sensibus or sub sensus subiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be robust, vigorous: bonis esse viribus
    • (ambiguous) what country do you come from: cuias es
    • (ambiguous) to be alive: in vita esse
    • (ambiguous) the rest of one's life: quod reliquum est vitae
    • (ambiguous) to be of such and such an age: ea aetate, id aetatis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in the prime of life: integra aetate esse
    • (ambiguous) to have become independent, be no longer a minor: sui iuris factum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be advanced in years: aetate provectum esse (not aetate provecta)
    • (ambiguous) to be more advanced in years: longius aetate provectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be infirm through old age: aetate affecta esse
    • (ambiguous) to be worn out by old age: senectute, senio confectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a contemporary of a person: aequalem esse alicuius
    • (ambiguous) how old are you: quot annos natus es?
    • (ambiguous) how old are you: qua aetate es?
    • (ambiguous) to be more than ten years old, to have entered on one's eleventh year: decimum annum excessisse, egressum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be not yet twenty: minorem esse viginti annis
    • (ambiguous) to outlive, survive all one's kin: omnium suorum or omnibus suis superstitem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be able to endure hunger and thirst: famis et sitis patientem esse
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy good health: bona (firma, prospera) valetudine esse or uti (vid. sect. VI. 8., note uti...)
    • (ambiguous) to be ill, weakly: infirma, aegra valetudine esse or uti
    • (ambiguous) to be seriously ill: gravi morbo affectum esse, conflictari, vexari
    • (ambiguous) to be affected by disease in every limb; to be paralysed: omnibus membris captum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have the gout: ex pedibus laborare, pedibus aegrum esse
    • (ambiguous) he feels better: melius ei factum est
    • (ambiguous) to be overcome by sleep: somno captum, oppressum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be sound asleep: sopītum esse
    • (ambiguous) I saw a vision in my dreams: species mihi dormienti oblata est
    • (ambiguous) I'm undone! it's all up with me: perii! actum est de me! (Ter. Ad. 3. 2. 26)
    • (ambiguous) this is the inscription on his tomb..: sepulcro (Dat.) or in sepulcro hoc inscriptum est
    • (ambiguous) here lies..: hic situs est...
    • (ambiguous) that is the way of the world; such is life: haec est rerum humanarum condicio
    • (ambiguous) that is the way of the world; such is life: sic vita hominum est
    • (ambiguous) to find one's circumstances altered for the better (the worse): meliore (deteriore) condicione esse, uti
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dilemma; in difficulties: in angustiis, difficultatibus, esse or versari
    • (ambiguous) the facts are these; the matter stands thus: res ita est, ita (sic) se habet
    • (ambiguous) the case is exactly similar (entirely different): eadem (longe alia) est huius rei ratio
    • (ambiguous) this is quite another matter: hoc longe aliter, secus est
    • (ambiguous) the matter has gone so far that...; the state of affairs is such that..: res eo or in eum locum deducta est, ut...
    • (ambiguous) my circumstances have not altered: eadem est causa mea or in eadem causa sum
    • (ambiguous) the motive, cause, is to be found in..: causa posita est in aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) the motive, cause, is to be found in..: causa repetenda est ab aliqua re (not quaerenda)
    • (ambiguous) to be of great (no) importance: magni (nullius) momenti esse
    • (ambiguous) to depend upon a thing: positum, situm esse in aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be in a person's power: in manu, in potestate alicuius situm, positum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a person's power: penes aliquem esse
    • (ambiguous) the matter is still undecided; it is an open question: res integra est
    • (ambiguous) I have not yet committed myself: res mihi integra est
    • (ambiguous) it is no longer in my power: mihi non est integrum, ut...
    • (ambiguous) the decision of the question rests with you: penes te arbitrium huius rei est
    • (ambiguous) on every occasion; at every opportunity: quotienscunque occasio oblata est; omnibus locis
    • (ambiguous) no opportunity of carrying out an object presents itself: nulla est facultas alicuius rei
    • (ambiguous) Fortune's favourite: is, quem fortuna complexa est
    • (ambiguous) to be abandoned by good luck: a fortuna desertum, derelictum esse
    • (ambiguous) happiness, bliss: beata vita, beate vivere, beatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have to submit to the uncertainties of fortune; to be subject to Fortune's caprice: sub varios incertosque casus subiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be exposed to the assaults of fate: fortunae telis propositum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be abandoned to fate: fortunae obiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a victim of the malice of Fortune: ad iniurias fortunae expositum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in danger: in periculo esse or versari
    • (ambiguous) a man's life is at stake, is in very great danger: salus, caput, vita alicuius agitur, periclitatur, in discrimine est or versatur
    • (ambiguous) affairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties: res ad extremum casum perducta est
    • (ambiguous) affairs are desperate; we are reduced to extremeties: ad extrema perventum est
    • (ambiguous) to be in a position of safety: in tuto esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in the enjoyment of a large fortune: fortunis maximis ornatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to live in poverty, destitution: in egestate esse, versari
    • (ambiguous) to be entirely destitute; to be a beggar: in summa egestate or mendicitate esse
    • (ambiguous) to be of use: usui or ex usu esse
    • (ambiguous) to be well-disposed towards..: benevolo animo esse in aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be popular with; to stand well with a person: gratiosum esse alicui or apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be popular with; to stand well with a person: in gratia esse apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to look favourably upon; to support: studiosum esse alicuius
    • (ambiguous) to look favourably upon; to support: propenso animo, studio esse or propensa voluntate esse in aliquem (opp. averso animo esse ab aliquo)
    • (ambiguous) to be hired, suborned: mercede conductum esse
    • (ambiguous) I am on good terms with a person: est or intercedit mihi cum aliquo amicitia
    • (ambiguous) to be bound by the closest ties of friendship: artissimo amicitiae vinculo or summa familiaritate cum aliquo coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be very old friends: vetustate amicitiae coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess great authority; to be an influential person: magna auctoritate esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess great authority; to be an influential person: magna auctoritas est in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to have great influence with a person; to have considerable weight: magna auctoritas alicuius est apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: dignitas est summa in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: summa dignitate praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) report says; people say: rumor, fama, sermo est or manat
    • (ambiguous) every one says: vulgo dicitur, pervulgatum est
    • (ambiguous) to be in every one's mouth: in ore omnium or omnibus (hominum or hominibus, but only mihi, tibi, etc.) esse
    • (ambiguous) news reached Rome: Romam nuntiatum est, allatum est
    • (ambiguous) to confer distinction on a person; to redound to his credit: gloriae, laudi esse
    • (ambiguous) to be consumed by the fires of ambition: gloriae, laudis cupiditate incensum esse, flagrare
    • (ambiguous) to have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of: bona, mala existimatio est de aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be honoured, esteemed by some one: esse in honore apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) the matter involves much labour and fatigue: res est multi laboris et sudoris
    • (ambiguous) it is worth while: operae pretium est (c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) to be involved in many undertakings; to be much occupied, embarrassed, overwhelmed by business-claims: multis negotiis implicatum, districtum, distentum, obrutum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be engaged upon a matter: occupatum esse in aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be engaged upon a matter: intentum esse alicui rei
    • (ambiguous) it is a great undertaking to..: magnum negotium est c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) to be at leisure: otiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be at leisure: in otio esse or vivere
    • (ambiguous) to be magnanimous, broad-minded: magno animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be of sane mind: mentis compotem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be out of one's mind: mente captum esse, mente alienata esse
    • (ambiguous) to be of sound mind: sanae mentis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be deep in thought: in cogitatione defixum esse
    • (ambiguous) it is a matter of conjecture, supposition: aliquid in coniectura positum est
    • (ambiguous) to be averse to truth: a vero aversum esse (Catil. 3. 1. 29)
    • (ambiguous) to be probable: veri simile esse
    • (ambiguous) this much is certain: hoc (not tantum) certum est
    • (ambiguous) I am quite certain on the point: mihi exploratum est, exploratum (certum) habeo
    • (ambiguous) I am persuaded, convinced: mihi persuasum est
    • (ambiguous) to give a person advice: auctorem esse alicui, ut
    • (ambiguous) to be perplexed: consilii inopem esse
    • (ambiguous) I am resolved; it is my intention: in animo habeo or mihi est in animo c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) I am determined: certum (mihi) est
    • (ambiguous) I am firmly resolved: certum deliberatumque est
    • (ambiguous) I intend, propose to..: propositum est mihi c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) my intention is..: consilium est c. Inf. or ut
    • (ambiguous) he attained his object: id quod voluit consecutus est
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning of this: quid hoc rei est?
    • (ambiguous) to detain a person: in mora alicui esse
    • (ambiguous) to have a good memory: memorem esse (opp. obliviosum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to be forgotten, pass into oblivion: oblivioni esse, dari
    • (ambiguous) to have had practical experience: in rebus atque in usu versatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess experience: usu praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have had no experience of the world: (rerum) imperitum esse
    • (ambiguous) he has had many painful experiences: multa acerba expertus est
    • (ambiguous) to be interested in, have a taste for culture: optimarum artium studio incensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have received only a moderate education: a doctrina mediocriter instructum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be well-informed, erudite: multarum rerum cognitione imbutum esse (opp. litterarum or eruditionis expertem esse or [rerum] rudem esse)
    • (ambiguous) to have received a liberal education: optimis studiis or artibus, optimarum artium studiis eruditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have received a superficial education: litteris leviter imbutum or tinctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have attained to a high degree of culture: omni vita atque victu excultum atque expolitum esse (Brut. 25. 95)
    • (ambiguous) to be quite uncivilised: omnis cultus et humanitatis expertem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be brought up in some one's school: e disciplina alicuius profectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy close intercourse with... (of master and pupil): multum esse cum aliquo (Fam. 16. 21)
    • (ambiguous) to be born for a thing, endowed by nature for it: natum, factum esse ad aliquid (faciendum)
    • (ambiguous) to be gifted, talented (not praeditum esse by itself): bona indole (always in sing.) praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess rich mental endowments: summo ingenio praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) we expect a great deal from a man of your calibre: magna est exspectatio ingenii tui
    • (ambiguous) to be a philosopher, physician by profession: se philosophum, medicum (esse) profiteri
    • (ambiguous) to set an example: exemplo esse
    • (ambiguous) a thing is deeply impressed on the mind: aliquid in animo haeret, penitus insedit or infixum est
    • (ambiguous) to attend Plato's lectures: audire Platonem, auditorem esse Platonis
    • (ambiguous) to be ignorant of even the elements of logic: dialecticis ne imbutum quidem esse
    • (ambiguous) moral science; ethics: philosophia, quae est de vita et moribus (Acad. 1. 5. 19)
    • (ambiguous) to have been reduced to a system: arte conclusum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be comprised under the term 'fear.: sub metum subiectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be closely connected with each other: conexum et aptum esse inter se
    • (ambiguous) to be closely connected with a thing: cohaerere, coniunctum esse cum aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be very intimately related: arte (artissime) coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have no coherence, connection: diffusum, dissipatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be confused: confusum, perturbatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to bring forward a proof of the immortality of the soul: argumentum afferre, quo animos immortales esse demonstratur
    • (ambiguous) a proof of this is that..: argumento huic rei est, quod
    • (ambiguous) we start by presupposing that..: positum est a nobis primum (c. Acc. c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) it follows from what we have shown: hoc probato consequens est
    • (ambiguous) to be dogmatic; positive: pertinacem (opp. clementem) esse in disputando
    • (ambiguous) to be at variance with: in controversia (contentione) esse, versari
    • (ambiguous) I have a point to discuss with you: res mihi tecum est
    • (ambiguous) this goes to prove what I say: hoc est a (pro) me
    • (ambiguous) the question is settled, finished: res confecta est
    • (ambiguous) all are unanimous: una et consentiens vox est
    • (ambiguous) the learned men are most unanimous in..: summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)
    • (ambiguous) tradition, history tells us: memoriae traditum est, memoriae (memoria) proditum est (without nobis)
    • (ambiguous) we read in history: apud rerum scriptores scriptum videmus, scriptum est
    • (ambiguous) a twofold tradition prevails on this subject: duplex est memoria de aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be exact in calculating dates: diligentem esse in exquirendis temporibus
    • (ambiguous) he possesses sound judgment in matters of taste: elegantia in illo est
    • (ambiguous) a thing is taken from life: aliquid e vita ductum est
    • (ambiguous) to be a born orator: natum, factum esse ad dicendum
    • (ambiguous) to be a ready, fluent speaker: facilem et expeditum esse ad dicendum (Brut. 48. 180)
    • (ambiguous) to be an inexperienced speaker: rudem, tironem ac rudem (opp. exercitatum) esse in dicendo
    • (ambiguous) to be fluent: disertum esse (De Or. 1. 21. 94)
    • (ambiguous) to be a capable, finished speaker: eloquentem esse (De Or. 1. 21. 94)
    • (ambiguous) to be considered the foremost orator: oratorum principem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be never at a loss for something to say: solutum et expeditum esse ad dicendum
    • (ambiguous) to have a ready tongue: lingua promptum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have good lungs: bonis lateribus esse
    • (ambiguous) to introduce a person (into a dialogue) discoursing on..: aliquem disputantem facere, inducere, fingere (est aliquid apud aliquem disputans)
    • (ambiguous) to go deeply into a matter, discuss it fully: multum, nimium esse (in aliqua re) (De Or. 2. 4. 17)
    • (ambiguous) the circumstances are described in language worthy of them: rebus ipsis par est oratio
    • (ambiguous) a digression, episode: quod ornandi causa additum est
    • (ambiguous) no sound passed his lips: nulla vox est ab eo audita
    • (ambiguous) I have nothing to write about: non habeo, non est quod scribam
    • (ambiguous) a theme, subject proposed for discussion: id quod (mihi) propositum est
    • (ambiguous) but to return from the digression we have been making: verum ut ad id, unde digressa est oratio, revertamur
    • (ambiguous) the task I have put before myself is..: mihi propositum est c. Inf. (or mihi proposui, ut)
    • (ambiguous) it is a difficult point, disputed question: magna quaestio est (followed by an indirect question)
    • (ambiguous) the question has forced itself on my mind: quaerendum esse mihi visum est
    • (ambiguous) to be humorously inclined: animo prompto esse ad iocandum
    • (ambiguous) to make witty remarks: facetiis uti, facetum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a good temper: iucunde esse (Deiot. 7. 19)
    • (ambiguous) to be silly, without tact: ineptum esse (De Or. 2. 4. 17)
    • (ambiguous) to be pedantic: nimium diligentem esse
    • (ambiguous) the Greek language is a richer one than the Latin: lingua graeca latinā locupletior (copiosior, uberior) est
    • (ambiguous) he has made several mistakes: saepe (crebro, multa) peccavit, erravit, lapsus est
    • (ambiguous) to be united by having a common language: eiusdem linguae societate coniunctum esse cum aliquo (De Or. 3. 59. 223)
    • (ambiguous) to be unable to express one's ideas: orationis expertem esse
    • (ambiguous) the expression is not in accordance with Latin usage: aliquid a consuetudine sermonis latini abhorret, alienum est
    • (ambiguous) to be rich in words: verbis abundantem esse, abundare
    • (ambiguous) to derive a word from... (used of an etymologist): verbum ductum esse a...putare
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae est vis huius verbi?
    • (ambiguous) what is the meaning, the original sense of this word: quae notio or sententia subiecta est huic voci?
    • (ambiguous) what do we mean by 'virtue': quid est virtus?
    • (ambiguous) anger is defined as a passionate desire for revenge: iracundiam sic (ita) definiunt, ut ulciscendi libidinem esse dicant or ut u. libido sit or iracundiam sic definiunt, ulc. libidinem
    • (ambiguous) this word is neuter: hoc vocabulum generis neutri (not neutrius) est)
    • (ambiguous) it was said long ago that..: vetus (verbum) est (c. Acc. c. Inf.)
    • (ambiguous) as the proverb says: ut est in proverbio
    • (ambiguous) this is a proverb among the Greeks: hoc est Graecis hominibus in proverbio
    • (ambiguous) there exists a book on..: est liber de...
    • (ambiguous) the book treats of friendship: hic liber est de amicitia (not agit) or hoc libro agitur de am.
    • (ambiguous) the book contains something... (not continet aliquid): libro scriptor complexus est aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to be engaged on a book: liber mihi est in manibus
    • (ambiguous) the book, speech can easily be obtained: liber, oratio in manibus est
    • (ambiguous) we read in Plato: apud Platonem scriptum videmus, scriptum est or simply est
    • (ambiguous) in Plato's 'Phaedo' we read: in Platonis Phaedone scriptum est
    • (ambiguous) (1) to make frequent mistakes in writing; (2) to be full of mistakes (speaking of a passage): mendosum esse (Verr. 2. 4. 77)
    • (ambiguous) a letter to Atticus: epistula ad Atticum data, scripta, missa or quae ad A. scripta est
    • (ambiguous) to be so disposed: ita animo affectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be moved, agitated: commotum or concitatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be greatly agitated: commotum perturbatumque esse
    • (ambiguous) what sort of humour are you in: quid tibi animi est?
    • (ambiguous) the pain is very severe: acer morsus doloris est (Tusc. 2. 22. 53)
    • (ambiguous) to be vexed, mortified, anxious: in aegritudine, sollicitudine esse
    • (ambiguous) to be vexed, mortified, anxious: sollicitum esse
    • (ambiguous) something harasses me, makes me anxious: aliquid me sollicitat, me sollicitum habet, mihi sollicitudini est, mihi sollicitudinem affert
    • (ambiguous) to be bowed down, prostrated by grief: aegritudine afflictum, debilitatum esse, iacēre
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy peace of mind: quieto, tranquillo, securo animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be contented: rebus suis, sorte sua contentum esse
    • (ambiguous) I am content to..: satis habeo, satis mihi est c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) to be satisfied with a little: paucis, parvo contentum esse
    • (ambiguous) to suffer affliction: in luctu esse (Sest. 14. 32)
    • (ambiguous) to be in fear: in timore esse, versari
    • (ambiguous) to be completely prostrated by fear: metu fractum et debilitatum, perculsum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be brave, courageous: bono animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be brave by nature: animo forti esse
    • (ambiguous) to show a brisk and cheerful spirit: alacri et erecto animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be cast down, discouraged, in despair: animo esse humili, demisso (more strongly animo esse fracto, perculso et abiecto) (Att. 3. 2)
    • (ambiguous) to be proud, arrogant by reason of something: inflatum, elatum esse aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) to be puffed up with pride: insolentia, superbia inflatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be resigned to a thing: (animo) paratum esse ad aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to be ready to endure anything: omnia perpeti paratum esse
    • (ambiguous) to lose one's head, be beside oneself: sui (mentis) compotem non esse
    • (ambiguous) to lose one's head, be beside oneself: non esse apud se (Plaut. Mil. 4. 8. 26)
    • (ambiguous) it's all over with me; I'm a lost man: actum est de me
    • (ambiguous) to hover between hope and fear: inter spem metumque suspensum animi esse
    • (ambiguous) to be absolutely wanting in sympathy: omnis humanitatis expertem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be dear to some one: carum esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be dear to some one: carum atque iucundum esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with love: amore captum, incensum, inflammatum esse, ardere
    • (ambiguous) to be some one's favourite: in amore et deliciis esse alicui (active in deliciis habere aliquem)
    • (ambiguous) to love and make a bosom friend of a person: aliquem in sinu gestare (aliquis est in sinu alicuius) (Ter. Ad. 4. 5. 75)
    • (ambiguous) somebody, something is never absent from my thoughts: aliquis, aliquid mihi curae or cordi est
    • (ambiguous) there is nothing I am more interested in than..: nihil antiquius or prius habeo quam ut (nihil mihi antiquius or potius est, quam ut)
    • (ambiguous) to long for a thing, yearn for it: desiderio alicuius rei teneri, affici (more strongly flagrare, incensum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to be admired: admirationi esse
    • (ambiguous) some one is the object of much admiration: magna est admiratio alicuius
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with admiration: admiratione incensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be security for some one: sponsionem facere, sponsorem esse pro aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: invisum esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: odio, invidiae esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: in invidia esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be hated by some one: in odio esse apud aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with a passionate hatred: odio inflammatum, accensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with rage: ira incensum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with rage: iracundia inflammatum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be short-tempered; to be prone to anger: praecipitem in iram esse (Liv. 23. 7)
    • (ambiguous) to be virtuous: virtute praeditum, ornatum esse (opp. vitiis obrutum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to strive to attain virtue: virtutem sequi, virtutis studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be vicious, criminal: vitiis, sceleribus inquinatum, contaminatum, obrutum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have a natural propensity to vice: natura proclivem esse ad vitia
    • (ambiguous) to be fired with desire of a thing: cupiditate alicuius rei accensum, inflammatum esse
    • (ambiguous) some one feigns illness: aliquis simulat aegrum or se esse aegrum
    • (ambiguous) to serve as some one's butt: ludibrio esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be exact, punctual in the performance of one's duty: diligentem esse in retinendis officiis
    • (ambiguous) it is a breach of duty to..: contra officium est c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) to be courteous, obliging to some one: officiosum esse in aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to have an inclination for a thing: studere alicui rei, studiosum esse alicuius rei
    • (ambiguous) to have an inclination for a thing: propensum, proclivem esse ad aliquid (opp. alienum, aversum esse, abhorrere ab aliqua re)
    • (ambiguous) to be endowed with reason: rationis participem (opp. expertem) esse
    • (ambiguous) to be endowed with reason: ratione praeditum esse, uti
    • (ambiguous) are you in your right mind: satin (= satisne) sanus es?
    • (ambiguous) to be conscious of no ill deed: nullius culpae sibi conscium esse
    • (ambiguous) to behave with moderation: moderatum, continentem esse
    • (ambiguous) something is contrary to my moral sense, goes against my principles: aliquid abhorret a meis moribus (opp. insitum [atque innatum] est animo or in animo alicuius)
    • (ambiguous) to be consistent: sibi constare, constantem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be inconsistent, changeable: animo mobili esse (Fam. 5. 2. 10)
    • (ambiguous) something is a characteristic of a man: aliquid est proprium alicuius
    • (ambiguous) to be in the lower world: apud inferos esse
    • (ambiguous) we believe in the existence of a God: deum esse credimus
    • (ambiguous) to deny the existence of the gods: deos esse negare
    • (ambiguous) belief in God is part of every one's nature: omnibus innatum est et in animo quasi insculptum esse deum
    • (ambiguous) an atheist: qui deum esse negat
    • (ambiguous) to be tinged with superstition: superstitione imbutum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be the slave of superstition: superstitione teneri, constrictum esse, obligatum esse
    • (ambiguous) the house threatens to fall in (vid. sect. X. 5, note 'Threaten'...): domus collapsura, corruitura (esse) videtur
    • (ambiguous) the house suddenly fell in ruins: domus subita ruina collapsa est
    • (ambiguous) to be at some one's house: apud aliquem esse
    • (ambiguous) to possess means, to be well off: rem or opes habere, bona possidere, in bonis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be economical: diligentem, frugi esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a great eater: multi cibi esse, edacem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be the slave of one's appetite: ventri deditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to take only enough food to support life: tantum cibi et potionis adhibere quantum satis est
    • (ambiguous) to be given to drink: vino deditum esse, indulgere
    • (ambiguous) my relations with him are most hospitable: mihi cum illo hospitium est, intercedit
    • (ambiguous) I am always welcome at his house: domus patet, aperta est mihi
    • (ambiguous) to be always in some one's company: assiduum esse cum aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be on friendly terms with a person: usu, familiaritate, consuetudine coniunctum esse cum aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be on friendly terms with a person: est mihi consuetudo, or usus cum aliquo
    • (ambiguous) the conversation began with..: sermo ortus est ab aliqua re
    • (ambiguous) the conversation began in this way: hinc sermo ductus est
    • (ambiguous) to be married to some one: nuptam esse cum aliquo or alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be some one's heir: heredem esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) something has been left as a legacy by some one: hereditate aliquid relictum est ab aliquo
    • (ambiguous) it is my custom: aliquid est meae consuetudinis
    • (ambiguous) it is customary to..: mos (moris) est, ut (Brut. 21. 84)
    • (ambiguous) it is traditional usage: more, usu receptum est
    • (ambiguous) to be bankrupt: non solvendo esse (Phil. 2. 2. 4)
    • (ambiguous) money is outstanding, unpaid: pecunia in nominibus est
    • (ambiguous) the accounts balance: ratio alicuius rei constat (convenit, par est)
    • (ambiguous) money is plentiful at 6 per cent: semissibus magna copia est
    • (ambiguous) to be content with 12 per cent at compound interest: centesimis cum anatocismo contentum esse (Att. 5. 21. 12)
    • (ambiguous) credit has disappeared: fides (de foro) sublata est (Leg. Agr. 2. 3. 8)
    • (ambiguous) credit is low throughout Italy: fides tota Italia est angusta
    • (ambiguous) to be in debt: in aere alieno esse
    • (ambiguous) to be deeply in debt: aere alieno obrutum, demersum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have pressing debts: aere alieno oppressum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be fond of building: aedificatorem esse (Nep. Att. 13. 1)
    • (ambiguous) there is a bridge over the river: pons est in flumine
    • (ambiguous) to live in the country: in agris esse, habitare
    • (ambiguous) the crop is in the blade: messis in herbis est (Liv. 25. 15)
    • (ambiguous) your crop is still green, i.e. you are still far from your ambition: adhuc tua messis in herba est (proverb.)
    • (ambiguous) corn is dear: annona cara est
    • (ambiguous) to be the chief man in the state: principem civitatis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a friend of the aristocracy: nobilitatis fautorem, studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to occupy a very high position in the state: in altissimo dignitatis gradu collocatum, locatum, positum esse
    • (ambiguous) a law is valid: lex rata est (opp. irrita)
    • (ambiguous) to declare a law valid: legem ratam esse iubere
    • (ambiguous) the law says..: in lege scriptum est, or simply est
    • (ambiguous) a thing is illegal: aliquid contra legem est
    • (ambiguous) to be popular, influential: gratiosum esse (opp. invisum esse)
    • (ambiguous) to be a strong partisan: partium studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be torn by faction: partium studiis divisum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a follower of some one: alicuius studiosum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be neutral: nullius or neutrius (of two) partis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be neutral: in neutris partibus esse
    • (ambiguous) to be neutral: medium esse
    • (ambiguous) to be (very) patriotic: patriae amantem (amantissimum) esse (Att. 9. 22)
    • (ambiguous) to hold revolutionary opinions: novarum rerum cupidum esse
    • (ambiguous) there are whispers of the appointment of a dictator: non nullus odor est dictaturae (Att. 4. 18)
    • (ambiguous) to live in exile: in exsilio esse, exsulem esse
    • (ambiguous) to have unlimited power; to be invested with imperium: cum imperio esse (cf. XVI. 3)
    • (ambiguous) to hold a high office (such as conferred imperium, i.e. consulatus, dictatura, praetura): in imperio esse
    • (ambiguous) to grant a people its independence: populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati
    • (ambiguous) to be convicted by some one's evidence: testibus teneri, convictum esse
    • (ambiguous) the case is still undecided: adhuc sub iudice lis est (Hor. A. P. 77)
    • (ambiguous) to be at fault; to blame; culpable: in culpa esse
    • (ambiguous) some one is to blame in a matter; it is some one's fault: culpa alicuius rei est in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) it is my fault: mea culpa est
    • (ambiguous) to be free from blame: extra culpam esse
    • (ambiguous) to be almost culpable: affinem esse culpae
    • (ambiguous) to retire from service: militia functum, perfunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to retire from service: rude donatum esse (Phil. 2. 29)
    • (ambiguous) to have had no experience in war: rei militaris rudem esse
    • (ambiguous) to hold a high command: cum imperio esse
    • (ambiguous) to obey a person's orders: dicto audientem esse alicui
    • (ambiguous) to be under arms: in armis esse
    • (ambiguous) to be armed: cum telo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be out of range: extra teli iactum, coniectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to protect the troops in the rear: novissimis praesidio esse
    • (ambiguous) the cohort on guard-duty: cohors, quae in statione est
    • (ambiguous) the issue of the battle is undecided: proelium anceps est
    • (ambiguous) the position is critical: res est in periculo, in summo discrimine
    • (ambiguous) a hand-to-hand engagement ensued: tum pes cum pede collatus est (Liv. 28. 2)
    • (ambiguous) swords must now decide the day: res gladiis geri coepta est
    • (ambiguous) to have the advantage in cavalry: equitatu superiorem esse
    • (ambiguous) to be a match for the enemy: parem (opp. imparem) esse hosti
    • (ambiguous) there was great slaughter of fugitives: magna caedes hostium fugientium facta est
    • (ambiguous) to be on friendly terms with the Roman people: in amicitia populi Romani esse (Liv. 22. 37)
    • (ambiguous) he received from the senate the title of friend: a senatu amicus appellatus est (B. G. 1. 3)
    • (ambiguous) to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion: sub imperio et dicione alicuius esse
    • (ambiguous) to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion: subiectum esse, obnoxium esse imperio or dicioni alicuius (not simply alicui)
    • (ambiguous) to be subject to some one, under some one's dominion: in potestate, in dicione alicuius esse
    • (ambiguous) Asia was made subject to Rome: Asia populi Romani facta est
    • (ambiguous) to ride at anchor: in ancoris esse, stare, consistere
    • (ambiguous) much damage was done by this collision: ex eo navium concursu magnum incommodum est acceptum
    • (ambiguous) in short; to be brief: ne multa, quid plura? sed quid opus est plura?
    • (ambiguous) as I said above: ut supra (opp. infra) diximus, dictum est
    • (ambiguous) it sounds incredible: incredibile dictu est
    • (ambiguous) this is not the place to..: non est huius loci c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) this is not the place to..: non est hic locus, ut...
    • (ambiguous) so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: ac (sed) de ... satis dixi, dictum est
    • (ambiguous) there is this also to notice: atque etiam hoc animadvertendum est
    • (ambiguous) this passage is obscure: hic (ille) locus obscurus est
    • (ambiguous) it is clear, evident: hoc in promptu est
    • (ambiguous) it is clear, evident: hoc in aperto est
    • (ambiguous) this is as clear as daylight: hoc est luce (sole ipso) clarius
    • (ambiguous) from this it appears, is apparent: ex quo perspicuum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: id quod maximum, gravissimum est
    • (ambiguous) the main point: quod caput est
    • (ambiguous) what is more important: quod maius est
    • (ambiguous) this shows, proves..: testis est, testatur, declarat
    • (ambiguous) this shows, proves..: documento, indicio est (without demonstr. pron. but cui rei documento, indicio est)
    • (ambiguous) there is something in what you say; you are more or less right: est istuc quidem aliquid
    • (ambiguous) it is so: ita res est
    • (ambiguous) there is nothing strange in that: neque id mirum est or videri debet
    • (ambiguous) good luck to you: macte virtute (esto or te esse iubeo)
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