English edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Middle English -ere, -er, from Middle English -ere, from Old English -ere, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, usually thought to have been borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Saterland Frisian -er, West Frisian -er, Dutch -er, German Low German -er, German -er, Danish -er, Swedish -are, Icelandic -ari.

Compare the synonymous but unrelated Old French -or, -eor (Anglo-Norman variant -our), from Latin -(ā)tor, from Proto-Indo-European *-tōr.

Alternative forms edit

  • -'er (following an abbreviation, or sometimes following a number)

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to verbs) A person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb; used to form an agent noun.
    Antonym: -ee
    read + ‎-er → ‎reader
    cook + ‎-er → ‎cooker
    compute + ‎-er → ‎computer
    run + ‎-er → ‎runner
    toast + ‎-er → ‎toaster
    swim + ‎-er → ‎swimmer
    do good + ‎-er → ‎do-gooder
  2. (added to verbs, informal) A person or thing to which the root verb is done or can be done satisfactorily.
    look + ‎-er → ‎looker (an attractive person)
    keep + ‎-er → ‎keeper (a person or thing worth keeping)
  3. (added to nouns, chiefly denoting occupations) A person whose occupation is the root noun; (more broadly, occasionally with adjectives) a person characterized by the root.
    astrology + ‎-er → ‎astrologer
    baby boom + ‎-er → ‎baby boomer
    conlang + ‎-er → ‎conlanger
    cricket + ‎-er → ‎cricketer
    trumpet + ‎-er → ‎trumpeter
    zine + ‎-er → ‎ziner
  4. (added to numbers, measurements or nouns denoting quantified sets) A person or thing to which a certain number or measurement applies.
    six + ‎-er → ‎sixer
    six foot + ‎-er → ‎six-footer
    three-wheel + ‎-er → ‎three-wheeler
    first grade + ‎-er → ‎first grader
  5. (slang, chiefly entertainment, with few limitations) Used to form nouns shorter than more formal synonyms.
    percent + ‎-er → ‎percenter (commission agent)
    one hand + ‎-er → ‎one-hander (one-man show)
    oat + ‎-er → ‎oater (a Western-themed movie)
  6. (added to nouns) A person who is associated with, or supports a particular theory, doctrine, or political movement.
    anti-vax + ‎-er → ‎anti-vaxxer
    birth + ‎-er → ‎birther
    flat earth + ‎-er → ‎flat-earther
    truth + ‎-er → ‎truther
    woke + ‎-er → ‎woker
  7. (added to nouns or occasionally adjectives, generally) A thing that is related in some way to the root, such as by location or purpose.
    bacon + ‎-er → ‎baconer (pig raised for bacon)
    chocolate chip + ‎-er → ‎chocolate chipper (cookie containing chocolate chips)
    sternwheel + ‎-er → ‎sternwheeler (vessel driven by a sternwheel)
Usage notes edit
  • The suffix may be used to form an agent noun of many verbs. In compound or phrasal verbs, the suffix usually follows the verb component (as in passerby and runner-up) but is sometimes added at the end, irrespective of the position of the verb component (do-gooder) or is added to both components for humorous effect (washer-upper).
  • The occupational sense is often applied generally to members of a group, as in crewer (a member of a crew) and Z-lister (one on the Z-list); fans and hobbyists, as in K-popper (a fan of K-pop), and those who use a particular tool or instrument, as in JavaScripter (a programmer who uses JavaScript).
  • The entertainment slang sense is sometimes referred to as the Variety -er.
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

The translations below are a guide only. For more precise translations, see specific words ending with this suffix.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ware (suffix denoting residency or meaning "inhabitant of"), from Proto-West Germanic *-wari, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz (defender, inhabitant), from Proto-Indo-European *wer- (to close, cover, protect, save, defend).

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to a proper noun) Suffix denoting a resident or inhabitant of (the place denoted by the proper noun); used to form a demonym.
    New York + ‎-er → ‎New Yorker
    London + ‎-er → ‎Londoner
    Dublin + ‎-er → ‎Dubliner
    New England + ‎-er → ‎New Englander
  2. Suffix denoting residency in or around a place, district, area, or region.
    island + ‎-er → ‎islander
    highland + ‎-er → ‎highlander
    eastend + ‎-er → ‎eastender
Derived terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle English -re, -er, from Old English -ru (plural suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-izō (plural suffix). Cognate with Dutch -er (plural ending), German -er (plural ending). See also -ren.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (obsolete, no longer productive) Suffix used to form the plural of a small number of English nouns.
    childer, calver, lamber, linder ("loins")
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Middle English -er, representing various noun-suffixes in Old French and Anglo-Norman, variously -er, -ier and -ieur, from Latin -aris, -arius, -atorium. As a productive suffix, now merged with the occupational sense of Etymology 1.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Person or thing connected with.
    bottle + ‎-er → ‎butler

See also edit

Etymology 5 edit

From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ra, from Proto-West Germanic *iʀō, *-ōʀō, from Proto-Germanic *-izô or Proto-Germanic *-ōzô (a derivative of Etymology 6, below); related to superlative -est.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to certain adjectives and adverbs, now especially short ones) More; used to form the comparative.
    hard + ‎-er → ‎harder
    wet + ‎-er → ‎wetter
    fast + ‎-er → ‎faster
    strong + ‎-er → ‎stronger
Usage notes edit
  • (more; used to form the comparative): Most adjectives whose comparatives are formed using the suffix -er also form their superlatives using the suffix -est.
    • Final -y preceded by a consonant becomes -i- when the suffix -er or -est is added.
      easyeasiereasiest; graygrayergrayest
    • When the stress is on the final (or only) syllable of the adjective, and this syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled when the suffix is added.
      dimdimmerdimmest
    • The suffixes -er and -est may be used to form the comparative and superlative of most adjectives and adverbs that have one syllable and some that have two or more syllables.
      hothotterhottest; fastfasterfastest; funnyfunnierfunniest; sugarysugariersugariest
    • Some adjectives and adverbs form their comparatives and superlatives irregularly:
      goodbetterbest; farfartherfarthest, or farfurtherfurthest, depending on the meaning
    • The comparatives and superlatives of other adverbs and adjectives that have two or more syllables, and adjectives that are participles are formed with more and most.
      rigidmore rigidmost rigid; enormousmore enormousmost enormous; burntmore burntmost burnt; freezingmore freezingmost freezing
    • If in doubt, use more to form the comparative and most to form the superlative; for example, thirsty may become thirstier and thirstiest, but more thirsty and most thirsty are also acceptable.
  • Words ending with -ng are pronounced /ŋ/ by most dialects instead of /ŋɡ/. However, when -er or -est is added to an adjective, the /ɡ/ appears (in most dialects).
    long (/lɒŋ/) → longer (/ˈlɒŋ.ɡə(ɹ)/); young (/jʌŋ/) → youngest (/ˈjʌŋ.ɡɪst/)
Translations edit

Etymology 6 edit

From Middle English -er, from Old English -or, from Proto-West Germanic *-ōʀ, Proto-Germanic *-ōz.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to certain adverbs) More; used to form the comparative.
Translations edit

Etymology 7 edit

From Middle English -eren, -ren, -rien, from Old English -erian, -rian, from Proto-West Germanic *-rōn, *-iʀōn, from Proto-Germanic *-rōną or *-izōną. Cognate with West Frisian -erje, Dutch -eren, German -eren, -ern, Danish -re, Swedish -ra.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to a verb or imitative sound) Frequently; used to form frequentative verbs.
    twitter, clamber, bicker, mutter, wander, flutter, flicker, slither, smother, sputter
Synonyms edit
  • (used to form frequentative): -le
Translations edit
See also edit

Etymology 8 edit

From Middle English -er, from Anglo-Norman -er, Old French -er, the infinitive verbal ending.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (chiefly law, added to a verb) Instance of (the verbal action); used to form nouns from verbs.
    disclaim + ‎-er → ‎disclaimer
    remit + ‎-er → ‎remitter
    misname + ‎-er → ‎misnomer
    rebut + ‎-er → ‎rebutter
Derived terms edit

Etymology 9 edit

From Middle English -er, -ere (diminutive suffix). Compare -el.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to a verb or noun) Used to form diminutives.
    shive + ‎-er → ‎shiver
    slive + ‎-er → ‎sliver
    splint + ‎-er → ‎splinter

Etymology 10 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Attested in the UK since the 19th century. Originally Rugby School slang. Later adopted by Oxford University and then wider British society.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (originally school slang) Used to form slang or colloquial equivalents of words.
    association + ‎-er → ‎soccer (association football)
    football + ‎-er → ‎footer (association football)
    rugby + ‎-er → ‎rugger
    Radcliffe + ‎-er → ‎Radder (a building at Oxford University)
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 11 edit

From Middle English -er, from Old English -er, -or, from Proto-Germanic *-raz. Compare -le.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (now chiefly dialectal) A suffix creating adjectives from verbs, indicating aptitude, proneness, or tendency toward a specified action:
    clive + ‎-er → ‎cliver (apt to cleave or adhere to, tenacious, expert as seizing)
    slip + ‎-er → ‎slipper (tending to make slip, slippery)
    wake + ‎-er → ‎waker (tending to wake, watchful)
Synonyms edit

Etymology 12 edit

From Mandarin -兒-儿 (-ér).

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (Chinese literature) Junior, child, younger person. (Attached to a name, usually one syllable of the given name.)
    Li’er said hello to his father.
    • 1979, Women of China[1], page 44:
      Yue’er began to laugh again and her tears shimmered like dew on a lotus leaf disturbed by a breeze. Then we heard a sound. It was Man’er.
    • 2002 [1934], Xiao Hong, “The Field of Life and Death”, in Howard Goldblatt, transl., The Field of Life and Death & Tales of Hulan River, →ISBN, page 32:
      The fish was laid out on the table, but Ping’er had not come back, nor had his father.
    • 2014 [1959], Zhong Lihe, “The Little Ridge”, in T. M. McClellan, transl., From the Old Country: Stories and Sketches of China and Taiwan, →ISBN, page 202:
      Ying’er was not yet three years old. Li’er had always been the one to play with her or to carry her places on his back.
Usage notes edit
  • Especially in Mandarin Chinese literature that has been translated into English, the suffix is often left untranslated in unaccented pinyin. This practice is similar to the use of -kun / -chan / -san or sensei in English-language Japanese fiction.
  • Often, an apostrophe (used to mark syllable boundaries in pinyin) is inserted before the hyphen (as in Li'er), though it can also be omitted (Yinger).
Coordinate terms edit

See also edit

References edit

Anagrams edit

Afrikaans edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch -er.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. -er

Bavarian edit

Etymology edit

From Middle High German -er, from Old High German -ari, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī. Cognates include German -er and Luxembourgish -er.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Used to form agent nouns from verbs; -er

Derived terms edit

Breton edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. person or thing that (does the action indicated by the root); used to form an agent noun.
    brezhoneg (Breton (language)) + ‎-er → ‎brezhoneger (Breton-speaker)
    c'hoari (game; to play) + ‎-er → ‎c'hoarier (player, actor)
    tredan (electricity) + ‎-er → ‎tredaner (electrician)

Derived terms edit

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin -ārius. Compare the borrowed doublet -ari.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er m (noun-forming suffix, plural -ers)

  1. forms nouns meaning the location or object where something is usually found
    vespa (wasp) + ‎-er → ‎vesper (wasp nest)
  2. forms nouns meaning a plant which is cultivated to produce something
    garrofa (carob) + ‎-er → ‎garrofer (carob tree)
  3. forms nouns meaning the purpose of something or an object used for that purpose
    tovallola (towel) + ‎-er → ‎tovalloler (towel rail)

Usage notes edit

  • The equivalent suffix -era can be used to form feminine nouns with these meanings, but usually only the masculine or feminine form will be found in Catalan.

Suffix edit

-er (adjective-forming suffix, feminine -era, masculine plural -ers, feminine plural -eres)

  1. forms nouns and adjectives referring to an inhabitant of somewhere
    Brasil (Brazil) + ‎-er → ‎brasiler (Brazilian)
  2. forms nouns and adjectives referring to engaging in a profession
    camió (truck) + ‎-er → ‎camioner (truck driver)
  3. forms nouns and adjectives referring to being prone to some activity or characteristic
    mentida (lie) + ‎-er → ‎mentider (liar, deceptive)
  4. forms relational adjectives
    llet (milk) + ‎-er → ‎lleter (milk [relational adjective], dairy)
    pel·lícula (film) + ‎-er → ‎pel·liculer (film [relational adjective], filmic, cinematic)

Usage notes edit

  • Because these senses are used to form adjectives of two forms or nouns referring to animate objects, both the masculine and feminine forms will be found in Catalan, with the lemma entry found at the masculine form.

See also edit

Derived terms edit

References edit

Chuukese edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to possessive nouns) their
  2. (added to verbs as an indirect object) them

Related terms edit

Danish edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs, with the sense "someone or something that [verb]s".
  2. Forms plural forms of many nouns.
  3. Forms the present tense of many verbs.
  4. Forms demonyms.
    Berlin + ‎-er → ‎berliner
    Paris + ‎-er → ‎pariser
  5. Forms informal action nouns from verbs.
  6. (especially definite) Forms informal abbreviations of nouns, with elision.
    hotdog + ‎-er → ‎hotter
    fjernsyn (television) + ‎-er → ‎fjerner
  7. Forms a piece of currency from numbers.
    fem (five) + ‎-er → ‎femmer (fiver, five pounds/dollars/kroner/etc.)
  8. Forms a die throw result from numbers.
    Du skal slå mindst en treer for at komme videre.
    You must throw at least a three to move on.

Usage notes edit

Senses 1 and 3 often lead to heteronymic pairs. For example, from løbe (run) [ˈløːb̥ə] comes løber (runs) [ˈløːˀb̥ɐ] (verb form) and løber (runner) [ˈløːb̥ɐ] (noun), distinguished by stød.

Derived terms edit

Dutch edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -aar.[1]

Suffix edit

-er m (plural -ers, feminine -ster)

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
    Synonym: -aar
    hoeden + ‎-er → ‎hoeder
    spelen + ‎-er → ‎speler
  2. Forms nouns for a person associated with something.
    schip + ‎-er → ‎schipper
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Afrikaans: -er

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms nouns denoting male inhabitants or residents of a place.
    Een Amsterdammer
    A (male) inhabitant of Amsterdam
    Synonym: -aar
  2. Formings adjectives denoting something originating from a place.
    Het Groninger museum
    The museum of Groningen
    Synonym: -s
Antonyms edit
  • (male inhabitant): -se (female inhabitant)

Etymology 3 edit

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms the comparative form of adjectives.
Derived terms edit
Category Dutch adjective comparative forms not found

Etymology 4 edit

From Middle Dutch -er, from Old Dutch -ro, from Proto-West Germanic *-eʀā, from Proto-Germanic *-aizōz.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (archaic, except in fixed expressions) Used to form the (strong) feminine singular genitive.
    onverrichter zake(please add an English translation of this usage example)
    de schoonheid ener vrouwthe beauty of a woman
  2. (archaic, except in fixed expressions) Used to form the (strong) feminine singular dative.
    te goeder trouwin good faith
Usage notes edit
  • Mostly encountered vestigially, such as in fixed expressions; see for example the descendants at -wijs.

References edit

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 175

French edit

Etymology 1 edit

Mainly from Latin -āre; however, the descendants of some Latin -ēre verbs also became -er verbs in French.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
Usage notes edit
  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix.
  • In newly formed verbs, this suffix may be preceded by a euphonic consonant /t/ after a base ending in an oral vowel to avoid hiatus. In verbs formed from bases ending in nasal vowels, /n/ is inserted and the nasal vowel is denasalized:
    agio (agio) + ‎-er → ‎agioter (to speculate)
    blabla (chit-chat) + ‎-er → ‎blablater (to chit-chat)
    bourdon (bumblebee; drone) + ‎-er → ‎bourdonner (to buzz, drone)
Conjugation edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin -āre.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er m (plural -ers)

  1. forms nouns indicating the person who exercises a particular activity
    Synonym: (female equivalent) -ère
Derived terms edit

German edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle High German -ære, -er, from Old High German -āri, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -ārius.[1]

Suffix edit

-er m (strong, genitive -ers, plural -er)

  1. Forms agent nouns etc. from verbs, suffixed to the verb stem.
    arbeiten (to work) + ‎-er → ‎Arbeiter (worker)
    bohren (to drill) + ‎-er → ‎Bohrer (drill)
  2. Forms instance nouns from verbs.
    husten (to cough) + ‎-er → ‎Huster (single cough, instance of coughing)
    hüpfen (to hop) + ‎-er → ‎Hüpfer (hop, instance of hopping)
  3. Indicates something defined by a number; in the plural often all numbers with the same first digits
    16 + ‎-er → ‎16er (the 16, the 16er, e.g. a bus, a football player, etc.)
    200 + ‎-er → ‎200er (a 200, the 200s, e.g. a 200-euro note, or the list items 200 to 299, etc.)
    1990 + ‎-er → ‎1990er (1990s, the years 1990 to 1999)
Declension edit
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle High German -er, a plural ending for some neuter nouns.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Used to form the plurals of some nouns.
Usage notes edit
  • The plural ending -er is used in a fairly large number of neuters (including all those in -tum) and a small number of masculines.

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle High German -ære, -er, from Old High German -āri, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.

Suffix edit

-er m (strong, genitive -ers, plural -er)

  1. Forms nouns indicating an inhabitant of a place, or a person originating from a place.
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Probably originated from the prepositioned genitive plural of etymology 3 above, e.g.: der Berliner Pfannkuchen = "the Berliners’ pancake", and then "the Berlin(er) pancake", reanalysed as an adjective instead of a noun and seen as being in the nominative singular (due to the ambiguity of the definite article der, which is both masculine nominative and plural genitive).[2][3]

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms invariable adjectives from place names, with a genitival meaning, indicating origin from or association with that place.
Usage notes edit
  • In contemporary German, words formed with this suffix -er are written with a capital letter (§ 61 of the official reform spelling rules as of 2018), e.g. ein Berliner Pfannkuchen. In the past, they were sometimes written with a lowercase letter like most other adjectives, e.g. ein berliner Pfannkuchen.[4]
  • In case of placenames which are written with a space, the derived word can be written with a space or with a hyphen (§ 49 of the official reform spelling rules as of 2011), e.g. Bad SchandauBad Schandauer or Bad-Schandauer.
  • Since adjectives in -er are undeclined, they cannot normally support genitives by themselves. However, in the feminine and plural the ending -er happens to be same as that of a declined (strong) adjective and according pseudo-genitives may be encountered, such as Meldungen Berliner Zeitungen (reports of Berlin newspapers) instead of more proper Meldungen von Berliner Zeitungen. Such usage has been discouraged, but is no longer considered an error.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

From Middle High German -er.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms the comparative form of adjectives.
    lang + ‎-er → ‎länger
    schön + ‎-er → ‎schöner
    exakt + ‎-er → ‎exakter

References edit

  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 175
  2. ^ Johann Christoph Adelung, Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart, vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1793), pages 1848-1852, sub verbo 4. -Er
  3. ^ Hermann Möller, Ahd. frôno (nhd. fron-) als elliptischer Plural, in the Zeitschrift für deutsche Wortforschung, volume 4 (editor Friedrich Kluge; Straßburg, 1903), page 95
  4. ^ The current official spelling rules prescribe the capital letter without further explanation and without indicating the part of speech of the words formed with the suffix (compare -isch/-sch, derivatives of which are labelled adjectives in § 62).

Hungarian edit

Etymology edit

Possibly from English -er, by analogy of word pairs like blog and blogger (whose doubled final consonant is consistently pronounced long in Hungarian, as opposed to English) and/or perhaps earlier borrowed word pairs like stop and stoppol. Other existing slang terms ending in -er, like vaker, haver, sóder, might have played some role. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (slang, slightly derogatory) Added to a shortened form of a noun, lengthening the first consonant following its first vowel, to derive a noun.
    kalauz (ticket inspector)kaller
    nyugdíjas (pensioner)nyugger
    mami (mommy; elderly woman)mammer
    jobboldali (rightist)jobber

Derived terms edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

Latin edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. first-person singular present passive subjunctive of (first conjugation)

Luxembourgish edit

Etymology edit

From a Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -ārius.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. -er (suffix used to form agent nouns from verbs)

Derived terms edit

Middle Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic *-izô, *-ōzô.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. -er. Forms the comparative of adjectives.

Alternative forms edit

Derived terms edit

See Category:Middle Dutch comparative adjectives.

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

Middle French edit

Alternative forms edit

  • -ier (typically early Middle French)

Etymology 1 edit

From Old French -ier, -er, from Latin -are.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
Usage notes edit
  • Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix
Descendants edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old French -ier.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms nouns, often denoting professions
    boucher
    butcher
Descendants edit

Norman edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Derived terms edit

Northern Kurdish edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Used to form nouns referring to doer or who works on something.
    (to be) + ‎-er → ‎bûyer (event)
    destpêkirin (to start) + ‎-er → ‎destpêker (starter)

Derived terms edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Etymology 1 edit

From Danish -er

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to numbers) order, position, value or similar indicated by the numeral

Etymology 2 edit

From Danish -er, from Old Norse -ari, from Medieval Latin and Middle Low German words, both from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -ārius.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (added to verbs) person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb
  2. (added to place names) person or thing that originates in the place indicated by the place name

Etymology 3 edit

From Danish -er.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. suffix added to most of indefinite plural nouns, usually identical to Danish, but unlike Nynorsk and Swedish
Derived terms edit

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Used to form indefinite plurals for most feminine nouns.
  2. Used to form indefinite plurals for some masculine nouns.
  3. Used to form present tense for one class of weak verbs.
  4. (obsolete) Used to form present tense for strong verbs.

Old English edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Alternative form of -or

Old French edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin -āre.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Alternative form of -ier, verbal suffix
Usage notes edit
  • All varieties of Old French use -er but it's more common in Anglo-Norman than in France, specifically before certain consonants such as c and g.

Etymology 2 edit

From Latin -ārius.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (chiefly Anglo-Norman) Alternative form of -ier, suffix indicating a profession
    falconer, fauconer
    falconer

Old Frisian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-West Germanic *iʀ, from Proto-Germanic *iz, from Proto-Indo-European *ís. Cognates include Old High German er, Old Norse er and Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

-er

  1. enclitic nominative of

Descendants edit

  • Saterland Frisian: er
  • West Frisian: er

Old Swedish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse -r.

Suffix edit

-er

  1. denotes the nominative singular of adjectives, masculine a-stem, i-stem, u-stem, and an-stem, as well as feminine ijo-stem nouns
  2. denotes the nominative and accusative plurals of r- and consonant stem nouns
    fisker
    fish
    dø̄ver
    deaf

Polish edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Internationalism; compare English -er.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er m

  1. -er, creates an agent noun
    aport + ‎-er → ‎aporter

Declension edit

Animate:

Animal:

Inanimate:

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • -er in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese -er, from Latin -ēre. The short -ere of some Latin verbs was reinterpreted as either -er or -ir.

Pronunciation edit

 
 

  • Rhymes: (Portugal, São Paulo) -eɾ, (Brazil) -eʁ, (Brazil, with r-dropping) -e

Suffix edit

-er (verb-forming suffix, first-person singular present -o, first-person singular preterite -i, past participle -ido)

  1. forms the infinitive of the second-conjugation verbs

Conjugation edit

Saterland Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Old Frisian -ere, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī. Cognates include West Frisian -er and German -er.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs; -er

Declension edit

Scots edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ere.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs; -er

Spanish edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Latin -ēre.

Suffix edit

-er (verb-forming suffix, first-person singular present -o, first-person singular preterite , past participle -ido)

  1. the infinitive suffix for many verbs

Conjugation edit

See also edit

Swedish edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. One of two suffixes for indefinite plural for nouns of the third declension (common and neuter); the second one is -r
  2. Suffix for present tense, active voice, indicative mood for one of the groups of Swedish verbs
  3. Agent noun suffix, often for loan words ending with -ik.
    matematik (mathematics) + ‎-er → ‎matematiker (mathematician)
    fysik (physics) + ‎-er → ‎fysiker (physicist)
    slarv (sloppiness, carelessness) + ‎-er → ‎slarver (someone sloppy or careless)

See also edit

plural suffix
present tense suffix
agent noun suffix

Anagrams edit

Turkish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Ottoman Turkishـر(-r, -er), from Proto-Turkic *-ür. Cognate with Old Turkic𐰼( /⁠-(e)r⁠/). Negative -mez are from Proto-Turkic *-meŕ, from Proto-Turkic *-me + *-er or *-ür (Azerbaijani -ər (indefinite future suffix)-məz, but -ir (simple present suffix)-mir).

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Simple present and aorist tense marker

Suffix edit

-er -mez

  1. as soon as
    Eve gelir gelmez duş alırım.
    As soon as I get home, I take a shower.
Usage notes edit

The suffix -r is used after verb stems ending in a vowel. Unlike most negations of tense suffixes which regularly uses the suffix -me, negative aorist suffix is -mez instead of *-mer.

Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. Makes adjectives out of verbs
  2. Makes nouns out of verbs
    kes- (to cut) + ‎-er → ‎keser (adze)
    Yağmur diner gibi oldu.The rain seems to be stopping.

Etymology 3 edit

Inherited from Ottoman Turkishـر(-er), from Proto-Turkic [Term?].

Suffix edit

preceding vowel
A / I / O / U E / İ / Ö / Ü
postconsonantal -ar -er
postvocalic -şar -şer

-er

  1. suffix for distributive numbers
    bir + ‎-er → ‎birer
    iki + ‎-er → ‎ikişer
    dört + ‎-er → ‎dörder
    beş + ‎-er → ‎beşer
Derived terms edit

Walloon edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. A verb ending for infinitives.

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Suffix edit

-er

  1. (literary) verb suffix for the impersonal present subjunctive
  2. (literary) verb suffix for the impersonal imperative

Etymology 2 edit

Suffix edit

-er m

  1. suffix forming nouns
    brig (branches, sprigs, shoots) + ‎-er → ‎briger (stamens)
    tafl (sling, catapult) + ‎-er → ‎tafler (sling, catapult)
    col (awn) + ‎-er → ‎colier (awner, chobber)

References edit

R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-er”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies