- progressive participle suffix
- As with the agentive particles in other Mongolic languages, forms built using this suffix can also be used to derive names of occupations.
- The primary usage is to form relative clauses which denote an ongoing event relative to the rest of the sentence.
- IPA(key): /çən/, [çən], [çn̩]
- The use of a syllabic nasal [n̩] is less common in this ending than otherwise. The vowel tends to be preserved and often fronted, yielding [çɪn].
- the most common suffix to create a diminutive form
- Words ending in the suffix -chen are always neuter, whatever gender the basic word.
- Generally, with few exceptions, diminutives with -chen have an umlauted stem vowel. Double vowels must be singled as the combinations ää and öö are not permitted in modern German orthography (e.g. Härchen from Haar, Bötchen from Boot).
- Word-final -e and -en are lost before the diminutive ending: Kärtchen from Karte, Gärtchen from Garten.
- Words ending in -ch (and some others) use the double suffix -elchen, e.g. Strichelchen from Strich. However, the suffix -lein is more common for these words in writing (Strichlein).
- The plural diminutive is generally unchanged, but some words with a plural in -er may carry this ending over to the plural diminutive, yielding -erchen. This is perfectly standard in Kindchen → Kinderchen; other forms (like Lämmerchen, etc.) are dated or informal.
- -elchen (see usage notes below)
- Luxembourgish diminutives, unlike German, keep the gender of the basic word. With few exceptions, diminutives exhibit umlaut if possible. Stems ending in -k, -g, -ch, -ng use the extended suffix -elchen. Some diminutives are irregular: Wäin → Wéngchen.
- When the syllable immediately before -chen is stressed, the plural is of the form -ercher, otherwise -cher: Kätzchen → Kätzercher, but Äppelchen → Äppelcher. Nouns with an irregular plural often exhibit a similar irregularity in the plural diminutive: Hand → Hänn and analogously Händchen → Hännercher.