See also: Appendix:Variations of "san"
- Honorific ending used to indicate a person is Japanese or talking with Japanese, or treated like Japanese.
Japanese honorific ending
- -sean (used after palatalized consonants and front vowels)
- emphatic suffix of the following persons; used after velarized consonants and back vowels
- third-person singular masculine
- third-person plural
Spelled with a hyphen after -s, otherwise without a hyphen.
- Added to nouns (or adjectives modifying a noun) in the presence of the possessive adjective to emphasize the possessor rather than the thing possessed:
- a mhadrasan ― his dog
- a gcarr deargsan ― their red car
- Added to pronouns (both simple and prepositional) to add emphasis (not to create a reflexive pronoun):
- as-san ― out of him
- siadsan, iadsan ― they, them
- Added to synthetic verb forms to add emphasis to the subject (third-person plural only as there are no third-person singular synthetic forms):
- chualadarsan ― they heard
- Added to prepositional pronouns to add emphasis (not to create a reflexive pronoun).
- Used in third-person singular masculine (eg aigesan).
- Used in third-person plural (eg orrasan).
- When the last letter of the prepositional pronoun is s, a hyphen is put before the suffix (eg leis-san).