Abenaki edit

Suffix edit

-ok

  1. A suffix used to form the plurals of some animate words.
    agaskw (woodchuck)agask(w)ok (woodchucks)

Usage notes edit

  • Used to form the plurals of many words ending in w (which it may suppress), and of some other words (which likely ended in w at an earlier stage of the language).
  • See the usage notes at -ak.

Basque edit

Suffix edit

-ok

  1. Absolutive and ergative proximal plural suffix.
    1. we
      Ikasleok azterketa errezak nahiago ditugu.We students prefer easy exams.
    2. you
    3. these
      Otsoak mendiotan zehar dabiltza.There are wolves wandering around these mountains.

Usage notes edit

  • There are two uses for this suffix:
    • Replacing the normal plural -ak when the speaker/interlocutor is part of a group.
    • A clitic equivalent of hauek (these). However, they aren't exact synonyms, as -ok often implies a real physical proximity.
  • The inflection is similar to that of -ak, but replacing -e- by -o-.

Declension edit

Basque inflectional suffixes
indefinite singular plural proximal plural
absolutive -∅ -a -ak -ok
ergative -(e)k -ak -ek
dative -(r)i -ari -ei -oi
genitive -(r)en -aren -en -on
comitative -(r)ekin -arekin -ekin -okin
causative -(r)engatik -arengatik -engatik -ongatik
benefactive -(r)entzat -arentzat -entzat -ontzat
instrumental -(e)z -az -ez -oz
inessive anim. -(r)engan -arengan -engan -ongan
inanim. -(e)tan -an -etan -otan
locative anim.
inanim. -(e)tako -(e)ko -etako -otako
allative anim. -(r)engana -arengana -engana -ongana
inanim. -(e)tara -(e)ra -etara -otara
terminative anim. -(r)enganaino -arenganaino -enganaino -onganaino
inanim. -(e)taraino -(e)raino -etaraino -otaraino
directive anim. -(r)enganantz -arenganantz -enganantz -onganantz
inanim. -(e)tarantz -(e)rantz -etarantz -otarantz
destinative anim. -(r)enganako -arenganako -enganako -onganako
inanim. -(e)tarako -(e)rako -etarako -otarako
ablative anim. -(r)engandik -arengandik -engandik -ongandik
inanim. -(e)tatik -(e)tik -etik -otik
partitive -(r)ik
prolative -tzat

Further reading edit

  • plural hurbila (-ok)” in Euskara Batuaren Eskuliburua [Handbook of Standard Basque], euskaltzaindia.eus

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From -o- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (plural suffix).

Suffix edit

-ok

  1. (plural suffix) -s, -es
    kor (age) + ‎-ok → ‎korok (ages)
    Az elektromos autók hangtalanok.Electric cars are quiet.
Usage notes edit
  • (plural suffix) Variants:
    -k is added to words ending in a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-. Final -e changes to -é-.
    (woman) + ‎-k → ‎k (women)
    fa (tree) + ‎-k → ‎k (trees)
    csésze (cup) + ‎-k → ‎csészék (cups)
    -ak is added to some back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    ház (house) + ‎-ak → ‎házak (houses)
    -ok is added to most back-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    pad (bench) + ‎-ok → ‎padok (benches)
    -ek is added to unrounded (and some rounded) front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kert (garden) + ‎-ek → ‎kertek (gardens)
    könyv (book) + ‎-ek → ‎könyvek (books)
    -ök is added to most rounded front-vowel words ending in a consonant:
    kör (circle) + ‎-ök → ‎körök (circles)
  • Note that the plural form is not used after definite and indefinite numerals in Hungarian: három könyv (three books), néhány óra múlva (in a few hours’ time). There are very few (traditional, archaic) exceptions, including háromkirályok (the Three Magi), mindenszentek (All Saints), and certain archaic phrases with összes (all) and minden (every) (see their Usage notes).
  • The regular plural suffix for back-vowel adjectives is -ak, for example okosak (smart/clever ones). On the other hand, ethnonyms take -ok (e.g. olaszok (Italians), see the back-vowel terms in their category), as well as some other adjectives, including privative (“…-less”) ones (formed with -talan, -atlan, or -tlan). Rounded front-vowel adjectives normally take -ek, for example zöldek (green ones), except for demonyms (see rounded front-vowel terms in their category).
  • If a word can be both a noun and an adjective, the form of its ending gives information about its function, e.g. játékosok (players, noun) and játékosak (playful, adjective as part of a plural predicate). The same distinction also exists with words with rounded front vowels, e.g. ismerős: ismerősök (acquaintances, noun) and ismerősek (familiar, adjective as part of a plural predicate).

Etymology 2 edit

From -o- (linking vowel) +‎ -k (personal suffix).

Suffix edit

-ok

  1. (personal suffix) Forms the first-person singular present tense of verbs (indicative mood, indefinite conjugation).
    ír (to write) + ‎-ok → ‎írok (I write, I am writing)
    Levelet írok a szüleimnek.I'm writing a letter to my parents.
Usage notes edit
  • (personal suffix) Variants:
    -ok is added to back-vowel verbs
    -ek is added to unrounded front-vowel verbs
    -ök is added to rounded front-vowel verbs
    -om may be added to back-vowel -ik verbs
    -em may be added to unrounded front-vowel -ik verbs
    -öm may be added to rounded front-vowel -ik verbs

See also edit

Middle English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old English -oc, -uc, from Proto-West Germanic *-uk, from Proto-Germanic *-ukaz. More at -ock.

Suffix edit

-ok

  1. suffix forming diminutives of nouns

Descendants edit

  • English: -ock

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

A contracted form of -voke, -voka, from Old Norse vaka (wake, vigil) (oblique case vǫku). Doublet of vake and vòke.

Suffix edit

-ok m

  1. Similar to English -mas.

Derived terms edit

References edit

Polish edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ok m

  1. forms masculine nouns, sometimes with a derogatory connotation
    jabłko + ‎-ok → ‎jabcok

Declension edit

Inanimate

Animate

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • -ok in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Serbo-Croatian edit

Suffix edit

-ok (Cyrillic spelling -ок)

  1. Suffix appended to the present stem of verbs to form an adjective denoting a feature or a dimension.
    • dub (to hollow) + -okdubok (deep)

See also edit

Slovak edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ъkъ.

Suffix edit

-ok m

  1. used to form masculine nouns

Derived terms edit