English edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English -kin, -kinne, -kunne, from Old English cynna, the genitive plural of cynn (kind, sort, rank), used in compounds.

Suffix edit


  1. (now chiefly dialectal) Used to form adjectives expressing resemblance or likeness to, similar to -like.
  2. (plural -kin) A suffix used to form nouns having qualities of or belonging to a particular kind, class, or sort.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle English -kin, -ken (also as -ke, -k), perhaps from Old English -ca, -ce, but more likely from Middle Dutch -ken (compare cognate Middle English -chen, -chin, from Old English -ċen), apparently representing Proto-West Germanic *-ikīn, *-ukīn, a double diminutive, from *-ik, *-uk (> Old English -oc) + *-īn (compare Old English -en). Cognate with Dutch -ken, Low German -ken, German -chen, Old English -ċen. More at -ock, -en.

Suffix edit


  1. (now archaic) Forming diminutives of nouns.
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit
See also edit

Anagrams edit

Basque edit

Suffix edit


  1. Alternative form of -gin (maker, doer)

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-gik, from *-ka + suffix (possibly lative *-ik). Cognate to Estonian -gi, Votic -tši. The final -n is by analogy with -kaan.[1] The form *-gik was historically standard, and variation is found in some lexicalized terms (e.g. jotain ~ jotakin). The strong grade -k- was originally only used after consonants. Probably also related to Erzya -ке (-ke) in секе (śeke, the same), неке (ńeke, the same (plural)).[2]

Particle edit

-kin (enclitic particle, chiefly in the positive)

  1. (appended to any other word than a verb) also, too
    Minäkin söin tänään jäätelöä.
    Also I ate ice-cream today. (I wasn't the only one who ate it.)
    (Minä) söin tänäänkin jäätelöä.
    I ate ice-cream also today. (I also ate it on other days.)
    (Minä) söin tänään jäätelöäkin.
    I ate also ice-cream today. (I also ate other things.)
    Oliko siellä montakin ihmistä?
    Were there many people there too?
  2. (appended to a verb) though, anyway, still, nonetheless, nevertheless; often not translated at all, used to underline an action
    Minulla ei ole nälkä, mutta söinkin juuri jäätelöä.
    I'm not hungry, but I did just eat some ice cream.
    Minulla ei pitänyt olla nälkä, mutta söinkin juuri jäätelöä.
    I wasn't supposed to be hungry, but I just ate some ice cream anyway.
    Minun piti mennä kauppaan, mutta meninkin kapakkaan.
    I was supposed to go to the store, but I went to the bar instead.
    "Kuinka sait tavarat ulos kaupasta? Eihän sinulla ollut rahaa!" "Minä maksoinkin luottokortilla."
    "How did you get the items out of the store? You didn't have any money, did you?" "[Well,] I paid with a credit card."
    Bussi tulikin taas myöhässä.
    The bus came late again (as always).
    Vaikka osasinkin jo suurimman osan opetetuista asioista, kurssi oli silti kiinnostava.
    Even though I already knew most of the things taught, the course was still interesting.
  3. at that (in addition to what has been said; furthermore; moreover)
    Hän meni kuuluisaan kouluun ja hyvään menikin.
    He went to a famous school, and a good one at that.
  4. even (implying extreme example)
    Minäkin osaisin tehdä tämän!
    Even I know how to do this!
  5. -ever (when used with a verb that has an interrogative pronoun, often with ikinä for emphasis)
    Kuka ikinä onkin, hän yrittää vain saada huomiosi.
    Whoever that person is, they are just trying to get your attention.
  6. Used to form rhetorical questions or questions for which the speaker is seeking to have their opinion confirmed.
    Eikö olekin kaunis?
    It's beautiful, isn't it?

Usage notes edit

positive -kin
negative -kaan
  • The exact meaning of -kin (and -kaan) depends significantly on its placement within the sentence and the part of speech of the word to which it is attached.

Synonyms edit

Antonyms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Hakulinen, Lauri. 1941–2000. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys ('The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'). Helsinki: Otava/Helsingin yliopisto.
  2. ^ Erina Olga. Particles in the Mordvin Languages (1997), p. 37

Turkish edit

preceding vowel
A / I E / İ O / U Ö / Ü
default -gın -gin -gun -gün
assimilated -kın -kin -kun -kün

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit


  1. Assimilated form of -gin after the vowels E / İ.
    diz- (to arrange in a row) + ‎-gin → ‎dizgin (rein)
    sal- (to let loose, to let go) + ‎-gın → ‎salgın (outbreak, epidemic)
    dur- (to stop) + ‎-gun → ‎durgun (still, calm)
    ol- (to be, to become) + ‎-gun → ‎olgun (ripe)