The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German pronunciations in Wiktionary entries.
See German phonology at Wikipedia for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.
- ^ In free variation with [ʀ] and also — in Switzerland, Bavaria, and Austria — the voiced alveolar trill [r]. Compare /ɐ/.
- ^ /x/ is realized as a uvular fricative [χ] after [a], [aː] invalid IPA characters (][), and often [ʊ], [ɔ], and [aʊ].
- ^ The presence or absence of [ʔ] is not phonemic. In most standard varieties of German, all initial vowels are preceded by [ʔ]. However, this does not generally hold true for Swiss Standard German and most colloquial varieties.
- ^ [ɛː] is often replaced by [eː], chiefly in northern and eastern Germany.
- ^ Some references transcribe this diphthong as /ɔɪ/.
- ^ Compare /ʁ/.
- Duden 6: Das Aussprachewörterbuch (3rd edition, 1990, →ISBN).